Insulin Resistance

Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS. It can be caused by the presence of INSULIN ANTIBODIES or the abnormalities in insulin receptors (RECEPTOR, INSULIN) on target cell surfaces. It is often associated with OBESITY; DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS; INFECTION; and certain rare conditions. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
Also Known As:
Resistance, Insulin
Networked: 37918 relevant articles (2036 outcomes, 4938 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Obesity
2. Inflammation
3. Weight Loss (Weight Reduction)
4. Hyperglycemia
5. Body Weight (Weight, Body)


1. Shulman, Gerald I: 107 articles (03/2015 - 02/2002)
2. Kadowaki, Takashi: 72 articles (10/2015 - 01/2002)
3. Haffner, Steven M: 68 articles (12/2015 - 04/2002)
4. Stumvoll, Michael: 62 articles (10/2015 - 01/2002)
5. DeFronzo, Ralph A: 62 articles (05/2015 - 06/2002)
6. Sowers, James R: 61 articles (07/2015 - 02/2002)
7. Reaven, Gerald M: 60 articles (09/2015 - 02/2002)
8. Blüher, Matthias: 58 articles (01/2016 - 01/2004)
9. Mantzoros, Christos S: 58 articles (01/2015 - 02/2003)
10. Kahn, C Ronald: 56 articles (12/2015 - 04/2002)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Insulin Resistance:
1. Insulin (Novolin)FDA Link
2. Glucose (Dextrose)FDA LinkGeneric
3. Metformin (Glucophage)FDA LinkGeneric
4. AdiponectinIBA
5. pioglitazone (Actos)FDA Link
6. Blood Glucose (Blood Sugar)IBA
7. CholesterolIBA
04/01/2008 - "During the same period, a statistically significant reduction was also observed in total cholesterol levels (P = 0.042), and there was a weak trend toward the reduction in insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) (P = 0.080). "
07/01/2007 - "Exercise training results in cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations that may be beneficial in menopausal women by reducing blood pressure, insulin resistance, and cholesterol level. "
07/01/2015 - "BAR improved hepatic insulin resistance in FLS mice by reducing hepatic cholesterol without affecting hepatic triglyceride levels or body fat distribution. "
01/01/2012 - "Improved insulin resistance/diabetes at 5 days was predicted by 24 h changes as follows: per cent change ASP, HDL-Chol, hsCRP and total cholesterol predicted HOMA-IR (5 days) (r(2)=0.454, P<0.001), and per cent change ASP, HDL-Chol and hsCRP predicted change (5 days vs baseline) in HOMA-IR (r(2)=0.351, P<0.001). "
05/01/2015 - "To present a comprehensive report of the distribution of CMS in Nigeria, extensive searches was carried out on PubMed, African Journals Online (AJOL), SCOPUS, EBSCOhost (CINAHL Plus), Google Scholar and Science Direct using terms: Nigeria, metabolic syndrome, cardio-metabolic syndrome, syndrome X, World Health Organization, International Diabetic Federation, National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, European Group for study on Insulin Resistance, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologist, American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. "
8. FructoseIBA
9. Triglycerides (Triacylglycerol)IBA
10. LeptinIBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Gastric Bypass (Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass)
2. Bariatric Surgery
3. Caloric Restriction
4. Oral Administration
5. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)