|3.||Adrenal Insufficiency (Adrenal Gland Hypofunction)
|4.||Hypopituitarism (Sheehan's Syndrome)
|1.||Dattani, Mehul T: 16 articles (12/2015 - 05/2005)|
|2.||Kelestimur, Fahrettin: 12 articles (01/2015 - 04/2005)|
|3.||Aimaretti, G: 11 articles (08/2013 - 01/2000)|
|4.||Ghigo, E: 11 articles (08/2013 - 01/2000)|
|5.||Di Somma, C: 10 articles (12/2012 - 07/2000)|
|6.||Tanriverdi, Fatih: 9 articles (01/2015 - 11/2006)|
|7.||Pereira, Alberto M: 9 articles (10/2014 - 10/2007)|
|8.||Colao, A: 9 articles (12/2012 - 07/2000)|
|9.||Shalet, S M: 9 articles (05/2009 - 01/2000)|
|10.||Agha, Amar: 8 articles (11/2015 - 10/2004)|
02/01/2011 - "All 11 patients with chronic hypopituitarism in whom the outcome of treatment was reported, showed marked improvement with hormone replacement. "
10/18/1986 - "Surgical treatment was somewhat less effective in correcting hormone hypersecretion than in other series but, on the other hand, it caused less pituitary insufficiency and, thus, less additional discomfort to the patients. "
12/01/2015 - "Of the 15 elderly patients who developed new hypopituitarism, 13 (86.7%) recovered without hormone replacement; accordingly, the rate of hypopituitarism remission was 84.6% in the younger patients. "
11/01/2010 - "Preoperative hypopituitarism disappeared or improved in 4 cases and was stable in the remaining 2 (no new hormone deficits appeared). "
08/01/2014 - "We studied 17 NFMA patients in long-term remission after transsphenoidal surgery, receiving adequate and stable hormone replacement for hypopituitarism, and 17 control subjects matched for age, gender, and BMI. "
|2.||Hydrocortisone (Cortisol)FDA LinkGeneric
04/01/2002 - "The presence of an intrasellar lesion and postoperative serum cortisol < 50 nmol/l are good predictors of remission in the long term but historically in our centre this can only be achieved in a significant number of patients at the expense of some degree of hypopituitarism. "
08/01/2007 - "Sleep improvement in an insomniac patient with global pituitary insufficiency after change from triple to quadruple cortisol replacement therapy."
01/01/2008 - "Correction of cortisol overreplacement ameliorates morbidities in patients with hypopituitarism: a pilot study."
02/01/2001 - "Four patients who received radiation therapy had a low or undetectable postoperative plasma cortisol level (<2 microg/dl, 56 nmol/L) and all of these patients developed hypopituitarism whereas 5 patients with subnormal plasma cortisol levels (2.0-10.0 microg/dl) remained in remission. "
04/01/1981 - "3 patients were cured but one of them has required postoperative substitution therapy with cortisol for hypopituitarism for one year until today. "
|3.||Growth Hormone (Somatotropin)IBA
09/01/2005 - "In adult patients with growth hormone deficiency due to organic hypopituitarism, substitution with growth hormone is very useful and well established. "
12/15/1996 - "Increased NO formation may be one reason for improved cardiovascular performance of patients with acquired hypopituitarism during growth hormone therapy."
04/01/1996 - "Improved left ventricular function after growth hormone replacement in patients with hypopituitarism: assessment with radionuclide angiography."
11/01/2014 - "The present preliminary study showed that ventricular arrhythmias may result in hypopituitarism, particularly in growth hormone deficiency. "
01/01/2014 - "Prevalence of posttraumatic growth hormone deficiency is highly dependent on the diagnostic set-up: results from The Danish National Study on Posttraumatic Hypopituitarism."
|4.||Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)FDA Link
07/13/1996 - "In our institution, improved preoperative localisation of corticotrophin-secreting hypophyseal microadenomas was associated with an important increase of success and cure rate of transsphenoidal surgery, while there was no increase in postoperative hypopituitarism or recurrences of Cushing's disease."
11/01/2015 - "We assessed the urinary corticosteroid metabolite profile (using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) and body composition (clinical parameters and full body DXA) of 53 patients (19 female, median age 46 years) with hypopituitarism (33 ACTH-deficient/20 ACTH-replete) (study A). "
07/01/1997 - "Various authorities, however, have suggested that the 250 microgram short ACTH stimulation test may be used to assess the HPA axis in place of the ITT in suspected hypopituitarism, although a number of other studies have suggested that the test may be unreliable in this setting. "
08/01/1989 - "Endocrine studies revealed that two patients showed panhypopituitarism and the other had isolated adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) deficiency. "
10/01/2012 - "The detection of AHA targeting CRH-secreting cells in some patients with GH/ACTH deficiency but with APA targeting only GH-secreting cells indicates that an autoimmune aggression to hypothalamus is jointly responsible for their hypopituitarism."
|5.||Thyroxine (Levothyroxine)FDA LinkGeneric
06/01/2014 - "In this study, we aimed at evaluating the association between radiological vertebral fractures and levo-thyroxine (l-T4) replacement doses in adult patients with hypopituitarism. "
09/01/1999 - "Therefore, aim of the study has been to compare head circumference measurements in children with hypopituitarism after L-thyroxine (L-T4) therapy alone, before therapy with GH, and after GH was added to the therapy. "
04/01/1999 - "Therefore, aim of the study has been to compare head circumference measurements in children with hypopituitarism after L-thyroxine (L-T4) therapy alone, before therapy with GH, and after GH was added to the therapy. "
06/01/2014 - "Association between l-thyroxine treatment, GH deficiency, and radiological vertebral fractures in patients with adult-onset hypopituitarism."
07/01/2013 - "Vertical transmission of hypopituitarism: critical importance of appropriate interpretation of thyroid function tests and levothyroxine therapy during pregnancy."
04/01/1984 - "Endocrinological study disclosed general hypopituitarism except for elevated serum prolactin level. "
01/01/1983 - "Influence of prolactin on pinealocytes of the mouse with hereditary hypopituitarism: a quantitative ultrastructural study."
05/01/2014 - "Pre-operative prolactin in patients with pituitary insufficiency were lower than those with intact pituitary function. "
01/01/2014 - "Blood tests revealed increased inflammatory markers, a serum prolactin of 9000 ng/ml (2.5-11 ng/ml) and panhypopituitarism. "
12/01/2013 - "Recovery of prolactin function following spontaneous pregnancy in a woman with Sheehan's syndrome."
|7.||Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-1)IBA
01/01/2008 - "At the last evaluation, 22% of patients were cured (hypopituitarism and GH deficiency in 6.3%), 37.1% were controlled by ongoing pharmacological treatment, 22.6% had discordant GH and Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) values, and 18.2% had still active disease (median follow-up in this last group was 9 months). "
02/01/1995 - "To determine whether limited sensitivity obscured diagnostic and physiological information, we assessed and modified a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elegance GH ELISA, Bioclone Australia) to achieve a high sensitivity (1 ng/L) and applied it to the study of IGHC and the relationship to IGF-I in a study group of 30 normal and 19 subjects with severe organic hypopituitarism. "
06/01/2013 - "In the absence of panhypopituitarism and low serum IGF-I levels, the diagnosis of adult GH deficiency (AGHD) requires confirmation with a GH stimulation test. "
09/01/2011 - "However, the endocrine pattern of aging is distinct from the decrease of GH/IGF-I levels associated with hypopituitarism, although there is not sufficient evidence for a clear therapeutic role of GH treatment during somatopause. "
10/01/2010 - "Currently, GH replacement therapy should only be considered in a patient characterized as GHI by dynamic GH testing in whom there is a plausible cause for hypopituitarism and in whom the IGF-I level is pathologically low."
|8.||Thyrotropin (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone)FDA Link
01/01/2009 - "Reduced thyroid stimulating hormone levels associated to normal/reduced FT4 levels should prompt investigation of pituitary function, on suspicion of hypopituitarism. "
01/01/2008 - "The typical pattern of thyroid function tests (TFTs) associated with hypopituitarism consists of subnormal free T4 (fT4) or total T4 and normal or marginally elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). "
10/01/2004 - "A patient with low free T4 and low thyroid-stimulating hormone without hypopituitarism."
03/31/2001 - "Measurement of thyrotropin concentration alone as a first-line thyroid-function test fails to indicate hypopituitarism in a number of patients. "
10/01/1999 - "Abnormal circadian rhythm and increased non-pulsatile secretion of thyrotrophin in Sheehan's syndrome."
|9.||Insulin (Novolin)FDA Link
04/01/1995 - "At present the 'gold standard' is the insulin stress test (IST) which is unpleasant and potentially dangerous, particularly in patients with hypopituitarism. "
01/01/2013 - "Selective use of the insulin tolerance test to diagnose hypopituitarism."
01/01/2012 - " Combined anterior pituitary stimulation test and insulin-induced hypoglycemic test confirmed the diagnosis of panhypopituitarism, including adrenocortical insufficiency due to pituitary and hypothalamic dysfunction by stalk compression. "
01/01/2003 - "The diagnosis of somatotropic pituitary insufficiency (SPI) was based on insulin and clonidin stimulation tests evaluating GH reserve of hypophysis. "
11/01/2001 - "The effects on insulin action in adult hypopituitarism of recombinant human GH therapy individually titrated for six months."
|10.||Human Growth Hormone (Saizen)FDA LinkGeneric
03/01/1979 - "The availability of a commercial preparation of human growth hormone (hGH) prompted a study in children with hypopituitarism to determine the efficacy of a lower dose of hGH. "
06/01/2002 - "Polysomnographic findings in five adult patients with pituitary insufficiency before and after cessation of human growth hormone replacement therapy."
01/01/1991 - "Data for a total of 942 new cases of hypopituitarism, out of 3493 patients treated with recombinant human growth hormone (GH) for more than 1 year, have been analysed. "
06/01/1990 - "We report auxologic data on 23 males with idiopathic hypopituitarism who grew up at a time when human growth hormone (GH) was not yet available, while receiving other appropriate hormonal substitution. "
09/01/1989 - "A dominant phenocopy of hypopituitarism in transgenic mice resulting from central nervous system synthesis of human growth hormone."
04/01/2010 - "Comparisons with conventional fractionated radiotherapy reveal a lower rate of remission with Gamma Knife((R)) radiosurgery, counterbalanced by a more rapid efficacy and a lower rate of hypopituitarism. "
02/01/2001 - "After radiotherapy (mean follow-up 8.7 years) 43% were cured, 66% controlled and 78% had hypopituitarism. "
09/01/2008 - "The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of radiotherapy-induced primary and secondary hypopituitarism. "
12/01/2015 - "Acquired hypopituitarism after radiotherapy was the main side effect reported with a rate of 39 %. "
07/01/2015 - "Radiation-induced hypopituitarism is an important late complication of cranial radiotherapy in children and adults. "
|2.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
06/01/2011 - "Chemotherapy has resulted in disease remission with resolution of MRI findings, but the patient has not had resolution of the hypopituitarism or DI. "
12/01/2010 - "Three cases were treated with chemotherapy; one of them had already received radiation therapy on the hypothalamic-pituitary region, developing post-radiation hypopituitarism."
08/01/1993 - "As far as we know this is the first report of panhypopituitarism caused by a hypophyseal NHL in the hypophysis and successfully treated by intravenous chemotherapy."
09/01/1994 - "We present the endocrine parameters of two adult patients with partial hypopituitarism documented at 6 and 8 months after chemotherapy, single fraction total body irradiation (10.5 Gy) and autologous bone marrow transplantation. "
09/01/2003 - "Although infundibular thickening resolved and diabetes insipidus improved after chemotherapy, panhypopituitarism persisted."
09/01/2005 - "It is recognized that this outcome required either total hypophysectomy (one patient) or postoperative hypopituitarism (all patients in remission). "
04/01/2002 - "The extent of surgical exploration predicted the development of hypopituitarism (88% total hypophysectomy, 33% hemihypophysectomy, 14% selective adenomectomy) but not remission (75% total hypophysectomy, 87% hemihypophysectomy, 71% selective adenomectomy). "
09/01/2011 - "Twenty patients with hypopituitarism secondary to hypophysectomy and 50 healthy subjects were enrolled as controls. "
10/01/2008 - "Panhypopituitarism followed the surgery in 14 patients (8.3%), 13 of whom underwent total hypophysectomy (9 initially and 4 with early reoperations), and in 1 of 10 patients who underwent subtotal hypophysectomy. "
08/01/2010 - "The most common aetiology of pituitary insufficiency in adults is hypothalamo-pituitary tumours or as a consequence of hypophysectomy or radiotherapy to treat pituitary tumours. "
|4.||Hormone Replacement Therapy (Therapy, Hormone Replacement)
01/01/1999 - "It was interesting to note that all the clinical features of Sheehan's syndrome and psychosis improved with hormone replacement therapy and she did not require treatment with antipsychotic medications."
10/01/2015 - "Timely evaluation and early initiation of hormone replacement therapy is essential to minimize long-term morbidities and mortality associated with pan-hypopituitarism. "
09/01/2015 - "Hormone replacement therapy needed closely followed by endocrinologist and multidisciplinary cooperation during the pregnancy of patients with hypopituitarism. "
09/01/2015 - "Patients with hypopituitarism usually need life-long hormone replacement therapy. "
09/01/2015 - "Three (27.3%) patients developed hypopituitarism needed hormone replacement therapy. "
04/01/2002 - "Hypopituitarism is the most common side effect of pituitary irradiation with an incidence of 13-56%. "
01/01/2002 - "Hypopituitarism is the most common side effect of pituitary irradiation. "
02/01/2001 - "In addition to the 12 patients with pre-irradiation pituitary functional deficiency, another 11 patients developed symptoms of panhypopituitarism during the 3-year period following irradiation. "
08/07/1989 - "Following neurosurgery of 60Co pituitary irradiation hypopituitarism was of high occurrence."
04/01/1984 - "Whilst external pituitary irradiation appears to reduce serum GH concentrations in patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumours the major disadvantages of this form of treatment are the time taken to achieve a cure and the high incidence of hypopituitarism. "