|2.||Respiratory Insufficiency (Respiratory Failure)
|4.||Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
|1.||Sznajder, Jacob I: 15 articles (12/2015 - 02/2002)|
|2.||Ainslie, Philip N: 14 articles (11/2015 - 07/2004)|
|3.||Nurse, Colin A: 12 articles (08/2014 - 12/2004)|
|4.||Kavanagh, Brian P: 11 articles (02/2015 - 11/2003)|
|5.||Taylor, Barbara E: 11 articles (11/2014 - 03/2003)|
|6.||Putnam, Robert W: 10 articles (12/2014 - 01/2003)|
|7.||Perry, Steve F: 9 articles (02/2015 - 04/2005)|
|8.||Fisher, Joseph A: 9 articles (08/2014 - 05/2005)|
|9.||Jankov, Robert P: 9 articles (04/2014 - 12/2003)|
|10.||Bari, Ferenc: 9 articles (01/2013 - 04/2002)|
10/01/2015 - "There were no episodes of desaturation or hypercapnia using the high-flow system, and in all patients the oxygen saturation improved above baseline values, despite one instance of apnoea resulting from over-sedation. "
04/28/1997 - "At baseline the PCV-nonresponders had significantly higher degree of hypercapnia and oxygen desaturation; no other parameters were found to be of predictive value concerning the efficacy of PCV. "
08/01/2006 - "Furthermore, hypercapnia results in a functional improvement in contrast sensitivity, possible due to the increased blood flow or the increase in blood oxygen levels."
08/01/1999 - "Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in experimental hypercapnia: improvement in the relation between changes in brain R2 and the oxygen saturation of venous blood after correction for changes in cerebral blood volume."
10/04/1984 - "Improvement in arterial and tissue oxygen supply and decrease in hypercapnia result from the specific and original action of the drug on the distribution of alveolar ventilation-perfusion ratios--an action that has been clearly demonstrated by the inert gas method and by radioisotopic techniques. "
01/01/1998 - "At 4-5 d of age there was no difference between the groups for either tidal volume (VT), respiratory frequency (f), or minute ventilation (VE) at rest, but during steady state hypercapnia (4 and 6% CO2) the CO-treated neonates had a significantly greater VT and VE (but not f) than did controls. "
01/15/2006 - "Separate analyses of patients without and with hypercapnia (arterial CO(2) tension greater than 45 mm Hg) during the spontaneous breathing trial showed that noninvasive ventilation improved intensive care unit mortality (0 vs. 4, 18%; p = 0.035) and 90-d survival (p = 0.006) in hypercapnic patients only; of them, 98% had chronic respiratory disorders. "
09/01/2015 - "The aim of this study was to determine if transcutaneous CO(2) monitoring (TCO(2)) is feasible to avoid hypercapnia during complex catheter ablation. "
07/01/2012 - "The present study assessed the responses of dominant, subordinate and control trout to hypercapnia (1% CO(2)) to test this hypothesis. "
09/01/2011 - "In the present study the deep-sea bivalve Acesta excavata was subjected to environmental hypercapnia (pHSW 6.35, P(CO₂) =33,000 μatm) corresponding to conditions reported from natural CO(2) seeps. "
02/01/2009 - "Tolerating a higher level of arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) is considered as 'permissive hypercapnia' and when combined with the use of low tidal volumes may reduce volutrauma and lead to improved pulmonary outcomes. "
07/01/1997 - "The goal of this prospective study was to determine the efficacy of EWO in reducing the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in patients with severe ARDS treated using permissive hypercapnia. "
10/01/2015 - "This study investigates the effect of hypercapnia on brain homotopy, achieved by breathing 5% carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas mixture. "
01/01/2009 - "In this study, we examined the effects of hypercapnia on DTI quantification in rat brains using inhalation of 5% carbon dioxide (CO2). "
11/01/1985 - "Serial measurements of delta Pdi during these weans revealed that (1) in no case was there a decrease in delta Pdi at termination of weaning, and (2) in the subgroup of patients whose weaning failed because of hypercapnia, the increase in arterial carbon dioxide tension (mean increase of 12 mm Hg) was associated with a significant increase in delta Pdi, from the beginning (21.1 +/- 12.1 cm H2O) to the end (24.8 +/- 13.4 cm H2O) of the trial (p less than 0.05). "
02/15/2011 - "Once hypercapnia was detected a trial of nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV) was offered with important improvement of arterial blood gases (ABG), and subjective good quality of sleep. "
12/01/1997 - "This study evaluates the short-term effects of nasal PAV on arterial blood gases in stable patients with chronic hypercapnia. "
08/01/1995 - "Arterial blood gases demonstrated hypercapnia with maintenance of normoxia in loaded rats; these findings persisted for the duration of the study. "
03/01/2015 - "We investigated the subjective effects of resistive loaded breathing with stabilized P(ET)CO2 (isocapnia) during manual control of inspired gases on varying baseline levels of mild hypercapnia (increased P(ET)CO2). "
01/01/2015 - "Calibrating the BOLD response without administering gases: comparison of hypercapnia calibration with calibration using an asymmetric spin echo."
|5.||Lactic AcidFDA LinkGeneric
03/01/1996 - "These data indicate that acute hypercapnia increases DO2 and O2 off-loading capacity in ARDS patients with normal plasma lactate, without increasing O2 extraction. "
07/01/1995 - "The myocardial lactate extraction and coronary venous lactate were unchanged and excess lactate was kept below zero, although coronary venous L/P ratio increased during hypercapnia. "
01/01/1995 - "However, acute hypercapnia per se can reduce lactate production. "
01/01/1995 - "Hypercapnia did not alter sheep behavior, food and water intake, arterial pressures, core temperature, or brain lactate release. "
03/01/1992 - "Thus ischemically sensitive visceral afferents respond to the H+ derived from lactic acid rather than hypercapnia. "
03/01/2001 - "Muscimol dialysis (10 and 40 mM) had no effect on eupnea but caused a significant reduction in the response to hypercapnia during both wakefulness (34.8 +/- 8.7 and 30.7 +/- 10.1%, respectively) and sleep (36.7 +/- 6.7 and 49.5 +/- 8.9%, respectively). "
04/15/2006 - "Muscimol did not change the threshold and sensitivity of RTN neurons to hyperoxic hypercapnia nor their activation by peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation. "
10/01/2000 - "Muscimol dialysis caused a 32.4+/-10.4% reduction in MA with a significant downward displacement of the response to hypercapnia with no significant effect on the slope. "
10/01/2000 - "In the RVM of decerebrate piglets 2-15 days of age, we studied the effects of electrolytic lesions (n=7) or microdialysis of muscimol (n=15), a GABAA receptor agonist, on ventilatory output and the response to hypercapnia. "
07/01/2014 - "Muscimol injection in the KF reduced the increase in ventilation produced by hypoxia (8% O2) (1,827 ± 61 vs. saline: 3,179 ± 325 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) or hypercapnia (7% CO2) (1,488 ± 277 vs. saline: 3,539 ± 374 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) in unanesthetized rats. "
|7.||Nitric Oxide (Nitrogen Monoxide)FDA Link
09/01/1996 - "The improved cardiopulmonary effects of inhaled nitric oxide with permissive hypercapnia potentially expand the use of nitric oxide in ARDS and other conditions in which this strategy is employed."
09/01/1996 - "The present study was designed to determine whether relaxations induced by hypercapnia depend upon nitric oxide (NO) derived from the endothelium, and whether NO-mediated relaxant response to electrical and chemical stimulation of vasodilator nerves is modulated by hypercapnia. "
04/01/1995 - "In the present study, we assessed responses at two levels of hypercapnia in a primate model before and after blockade of nitric oxide synthesis. "
04/01/2014 - "Therapeutic hypercapnia prevents inhaled nitric oxide-induced right-ventricular systolic dysfunction in juvenile rats."
06/01/2007 - "There is no sufficient evidence for a routine use of respiratory strategies like permissive hypercapnia or inhaled nitric oxide to prevent BPD. "
|8.||Acetazolamide (Diamox)FDA LinkGeneric
09/01/1998 - "Although the organic abnormality responsible for the breathing disturbance was not found, administration of acetazolamide facilitated several breaths between sighs, and the patient's hypoxaemia with hypercapnia improved. "
10/15/2011 - "Previous studies proved that vasodilation, caused by hypercapnia or acetazolamide, does not inhibit the visually evoked flow velocity changes in the posterior cerebral arteries. "
02/01/1995 - "Despite its poor spatial resolution, transcranial Doppler sonography has been used for determination of cerebral perfusion reserve studies measuring cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) during hypercapnia or application of vasoactive agents (eg, acetazolamide). "
12/01/1991 - "Dynamic cerebral blood flow (CBF) studies using acetazolamide or hypercapnia as a vasodilatory challenge have attempted to evaluate intracranial hemodynamics. "
07/01/1990 - "The second goal of this study was to examine the role of hypercapnia, which occurs after administration of acetazolamide, in producing increases in blood flow. "
01/01/1982 - "During hypercapnia, LAD flow was increased to a significantly greater degree by adenosine than during normocapnia. "
08/01/2014 - "Free-breathing T2-prepared myocardial BOLD MR imaging showed that hypercapnia of 10 mm Hg may provide a cardiac hyperemic stimulus similar to adenosine."
08/01/2014 - "BOLD MR (17% ± 14 [hypercapnia] vs 14% ± 24 [adenosine]; P = .80) and coronary blood flow velocity (21% ± 16 [hypercapnia] vs 26% ± 27 [adenosine]; P > .99) responses were similar to that of adenosine infusion. "
08/01/2014 - "Changes in myocardial BOLD MR signal were equivalent to reported changes with adenosine (11.2% ± 10.6 [hypercapnia, 10 mm Hg] vs 12% ± 12.3 [adenosine]; P = .75). "
08/01/2014 - "To examine whether controlled and tolerable levels of hypercapnia may be an alternative to adenosine, a routinely used coronary vasodilator, in healthy human subjects and animals. "
|10.||Propofol (Diprivan)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/2001 - "Sedative concentrations of propofol have an important effect on the control of breathing, showing depression of the ventilatory response to hypercapnia. "
01/01/1987 - "During continuous administration, propofol exerts the same effect on respiratory function as other general anaesthetics, with an increased respiratory rate, diminished tidal volume and hypercapnia."
10/01/2003 - "Diabetic patients have an impaired cerebral vasodilatory response to hypercapnia under propofol anesthesia."
02/29/2008 - "In the present study we examined the effects of propofol on carotid body responses to hypercapnia and K(+)-induced carotid body activation and compared these effects with hypoxia in an in vitro rabbit carotid body preparation. "
05/01/2008 - "To evaluate whether the markedly lower inspiratory genioglossus activity during propofol could be recovered by increasing flow rate, a measure of respiratory drive, the authors performed an additional set of experiments during hypoxia or hypercapnia. "
|1.||Positive-Pressure Respiration (PEEP)
03/01/1989 - "However, during both hypercapnia and PEEP, length changes of the external oblique were significantly greater than those of the rectus abdominis. "
01/01/2011 - "This study examines the effectiveness and safety of a novel open lung strategy, which includes permissive hypercapnia, staircase recruitment manoeuvres (SRM) and low airway pressure with PEEP titration. "
03/01/1989 - "The present study examined the effects of hypercapnia and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the electromyographic (EMG) activity and tidal length changes of the expiratory muscles in 12 anesthetized, spontaneously breathing dogs. "
02/01/2015 - "Spirometry indicated a forced vital capacity of 0.66 l, while arterial blood gas analysis under noninvasive positive pressure ventilation indicated hypercapnia (pH 7.44; Pa(CO2) 59.2 mmHg). "
11/01/2013 - "The animals were then ventilated with low tidal volume, moderate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and permissive hypercapnia throughout the experiment. "
|2.||Mechanical Ventilators (Ventilator)
10/01/2007 - "Analysis of these data suggest better results of HMV in patients with severe hypercapnia, with the application of higher effective ventilatory pressure and a ventilator mode with a significant reduction in the work of breathing. "
09/01/1996 - "At these maximally reduced ventilator settings, moderate hypercapnia (PaCO2 < or = 75 mmHg) resulted only when blood flow was decreased to below 500 ml/min. Optimizing AVCO2R blood and gas flow maximizes CO2 removal and allows a significant reduction in minute ventilation. "
03/01/2004 - "However, there are no clinical data evaluating the efficacy of hypercapnia per se, independent of ventilator strategy. "
03/01/2009 - "This study shows that neuromuscular disorders as a background, are the most common causes which defeat weaning from ventilator or result in reintubation by induction of hypercapnia."
11/01/2014 - "After returning to baseline respirator settings, both CBF and StiO₂ remained elevated and only gradually returned to pre-hypercapnia values without a rebound effect. "
|3.||Artificial Respiration (Mechanical Ventilation)
07/01/2002 - "More gentle ventilation strategies (permissive hypercapnia) are used, and the efficacy of mechanical ventilation can be verified in the intensive care unit. "
09/01/2015 - "In recent years, the number of hypercapnic patients has increased by the use of smaller tidal volumes to limit lung stretch and injury during mechanical ventilation, so-called permissive hypercapnia. "
01/01/2015 - "The use of esophageal balloon as a guide to mechanical ventilation was able to treat severe hypercapnia in ARDS patients."
01/01/2015 - "We examined the use of esophageal balloon for assessment of transpulmonary pressures to guide mechanical ventilation for successful management of severe hypercapnia. "
01/01/2014 - "The only intervention proven to reduce mortality is the use of lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategies, although such a strategy may lead to problematic hypercapnia. "
01/01/2015 - "Neonates are vulnerable to hypercapnia during anesthesia for their characteristic respiratory physiology. "
01/01/2015 - "This report will advance our understanding about the causes of severe hypercapnia during anesthesia, the possible compensatory mechanisms and the characteristics of neonatal respiratory physiology and intracellular buffering systems. "
12/01/2014 - "Mild hypercapnia increased the frequency of swallowing during anesthesia and the likelihood of pathological swallowing. "
12/01/2014 - "During anesthesia, hypercapnia decreased hypopharyngeal pressure during inspiration (-14.1±3.7 vs. -8.7±2 mmHg) and increased minute ventilation, the proportion of pathological swallows (19.1% vs. 12.3%), and the number of swallows per hour (5.5±17.0. "
12/01/2014 - "The authors examined the effects of anesthesia and hypercapnia on swallowing-breathing coordination. "
|5.||Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)
04/01/1997 - "Extracorporeal CO2 removal using a low-resistance gas exchanger in a simple arteriovenous shunt allows significant reduction in minute ventilation and peak inspiratory pressure without hypercapnia or the complex circuitry and monitoring required for conventional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. "
03/01/1997 - "From the individual and combined analyses the authors concluded: (1) CMV with ECMO as rescue produced an overall survival in CDH patients equivalent to CMV with HFOV in a parallel series, (2) neither HFOV nor ECMO has significantly improved outcome in CDH patients, (3) institution of permissive hypercapnia has resulted in a significant increase in survival, and (4) the leading causes of death in CDH patients appear to be associated anomalies and pulmonary hypoplasia, which are currently untreatable. "
03/01/1993 - "In our current study, we have applied ITPV in two neonates with CDH who could not be weaned from ECMO because of uncontrollable hypercapnia, and who met above criteria for 100% mortality. "
04/01/2012 - "The use of permissive hypercapnia for infants with CDH was associated with decreased mortality, a longer period of ventilation before repair with a shorter period of ventilation after repair, a lower rate of ECMO use, and no lengthening of hospital stay. "
04/01/2012 - "This retrospective review compares outcomes of infants treated for CDH in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) era before and after initiation of permissive hypercapnia at a single institution. "