|1.||Wounds and Injuries (Trauma)
|3.||Brain Edema (Cerebral Edema)
|1.||Pickard, John D: 20 articles (03/2013 - 06/2002)|
|2.||Menon, David K: 17 articles (08/2012 - 05/2002)|
|3.||Roberts, I: 16 articles (01/2007 - 01/2000)|
|4.||Hutchinson, Peter J: 12 articles (11/2014 - 05/2002)|
|5.||Pickard, J D: 12 articles (06/2007 - 01/2000)|
|6.||Czosnyka, Marek: 11 articles (03/2013 - 08/2003)|
|7.||Steiner, Luzius A: 11 articles (03/2013 - 08/2003)|
|8.||Coles, Jonathan P: 11 articles (07/2011 - 06/2002)|
|9.||Holmes, James F: 10 articles (01/2014 - 07/2004)|
|10.||Stocchetti, N: 9 articles (09/2003 - 01/2000)|
|1.||Mannitol (Osmitrol)FDA LinkGeneric
07/01/1985 - "Mannitol has been used clinically to reduce ICP with varying success, and it is possible that it is more effective in some types of head injury than in others. "
04/01/2013 - "Whereas a prospective study in adults with head injury compared alternating doses of mannitol and hypertonic saline and found no difference in change in ICP control or outcome, two meta-analyses, which did not include this study, favored hypertonic saline for ICP control (although the absolute difference of 2 mmHg is of little clinical value) with no difference in outcome.Hypertonic"
10/01/1996 - "Fourteen patients with diffuse head injuries and with raised intracranial pressure were selected, and mannitol infusion studies were conducted when clinically indicated (n = 23). "
12/01/1986 - "Eighty patients sustaining head injuries and presenting with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 8 or less were entered into a prospective randomized study to assess the benefit of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring with two regimens of mannitol administration. "
07/01/1986 - "This study shows that, after head injury in man, mannitol increases the white matter specific gravity and probably does so by reducing brain water."
|2.||Nimodipine (Modus)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/2009 - "Is nimodipine really effective in head trauma?"
06/01/2002 - "Nimodipine is effective in promoting cerebral circulation and improving the prognosis of patients with severe head injuries."
12/01/2006 - "A 2003 Cochrane review reported improved outcome with nimodipine in these patients; however, because the results of Head Injury Trial (HIT) 4 were only partly presented there is still discussion whether patients with traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage should be treated with this drug. "
09/01/2003 - "The aim of this study was to establish whether nimodipine given orally soon after severe diffuse head injury for a period of three weeks improved outcome. "
05/01/1994 - "A multicenter trial of the efficacy of nimodipine on outcome after severe head injury. "
|3.||3- (2- carboxypiperazin- 4- yl)propyl- 1- phosphonic acid (CPP)IBA
01/01/2008 - "Secondary pathophysiological CPP insult is related to outcome after head injury, and improved management would be expected to reduce secondary brain insult. "
05/01/2004 - "The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of severe head injury patients treated by setting the ICP threshold at >or=20 mm Hg or >or=25 mm Hg. Treatment protocol in this study consisted of therapeutic maneuvers designed to maximize cerebral profusion pressure (CPP) and control ICP. "
11/01/2001 - "The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between cerebral autoregulation, intracranial pressure (ICP), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) after head injury by using transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography. "
01/01/1998 - "This study aimed to assess the effect of increasing CPP on jugular bulb oximetry (SjO2) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) TCD flow velocities in the early management of severe head injury. "
06/01/1997 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in regional microcirculation using tissue pO2 (ti-pO2), as well as changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and intracranial pressure induced by changes in body position in patients with head injury. "
12/01/1999 - "Although jugular bulb oximetry is useful in the management of severe head injury, high oxygen saturation values should be interpreted with caution because they cannot show the intracranial heterogeneity of venous oxygen saturation."
12/01/1999 - "Continuous monitoring of jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2) is useful in the management of severe head injury. "
08/05/2012 - "In the present study, rabbits were treated with hyperbaric oxygen for 1 hour after detonator-blast- induced craniocerebral injury. "
03/01/2009 - "The aim of this study is to assess the changes of brain tissue oxygen levels in children during the first 24 h following head injury and its correlation with changes of intracranial pressure and clinical outcome. "
01/01/2008 - "The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on the cerebral circulation and metabolism of patients with disturbances in consciousness after head injury in the subacute phase. "
12/01/1995 - "Tirilazad has also been found to be beneficial in experimental head injury models, however current clinical studies have failed to confirm this efficacy, due in part to difficulties in obtaining therapeutic drug concentrations. "
10/01/1998 - "The authors prospectively studied the efficacy of tirilazad mesylate, a novel aminosteroid, in humans with head injuries. "
10/01/1998 - "A multicenter trial on the efficacy of using tirilazad mesylate in cases of head injury."
01/01/2003 - "Data from the prospectively conducted international trial of tirilazad mesylate in patients with head injury were analyzed retrospectively. "
01/01/2000 - "Two randomised controlled trials have examined the effect of the aminosteroid tirilazad mesylate on death and disability following head injury. "
11/01/1992 - "3. Trials of NMDA antagonists in human head injury are therefore strongly indicated."
11/01/1992 - "Introducing NMDA antagonists into clinical practice: why head injury trials?"
09/01/2001 - "A 46-fold increase of cortical NAE concentrations (anandamide, 13-fold) was noted 24 h after intracerebral NMDA injection, while less severe insults triggered by mild concussive head trauma or NMDA receptor blockade produced a less pronounced NAE accumulation. "
03/02/1999 - "N-Methyl-D-aspartate antagonists and apoptotic cell death triggered by head trauma in developing rat brain."
05/28/1996 - "These data indicate that both NMDA- and non-NMDA-dependent mechanisms contribute to the development of primary damage in the cortex, whereas non-NMDA mechanisms are involved in the evolution of secondary damage in the hippocampus in rats subjected to traumatic head injury. "
12/01/1976 - "It is emphasised that, provided an enthusiastic, knowledgable and co-operative approach is taken towards the treatment and rehabilitation of spinal cord and head injuries, the ultimate outlook can be greatly improved and a more optimistic outlook for these patients is justified."
01/01/2012 - "To study the effect of diagnostic and therapeutic measures at different stages of health care co-head injury victims and to create an algorithm of the best diagnosis and treatment of patients according to specific region. "
06/01/2009 - "Patients with positive history of co-ingestion of other drugs, addiction, convulsive disorders, renal diseases, or head trauma with abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) or computerized tomography (CT) scan of the brain were excluded, thus 132 patients were included in the study. "
07/01/2003 - "This study suggests that questions regarding head injuries during assessment may identify drug abusers who need a treatment approach that accommodates their co-occurring problems and difficulties with processing and complying with treatment interventions."
01/01/1990 - "The British/Finnish Co-operative Head Injury Trial Group."
10/01/1992 - "With ketamine, the NSS at 24 and 48 h following head trauma was 7.4 +/- 2.6 and 6.7 +/- 2.6 (mean +/- SEM), respectively, significantly improved compared to the NSS in the untreated group of 12.6 +/- 2.6 and 11.3 +/- 2.6, respectively (p <0.02, Mann-Whitney U test). "
08/01/1994 - "When given at 1 hour after head trauma, ketamine at 120 mg/kg but not 60 mg/kg is effective in reducing neurological damage after head trauma."
08/01/1994 - "We conclude that 180 mg/kg IP ketamine was effective in ameliorating neurological dysfunction after head trauma in rats when the administration time was delayed for 1 hour to 2 hours but not after 4 hours. "
04/01/2014 - "In this study, patients with head trauma (n = 57) showed no adverse effects on consciousness level after being treated with ketamine. "
01/01/2013 - "Ketamine has been historically contraindicated for its use in head injury patients, since an increase of intracranial pressure (ICP) was reported; nevertheless, its use was recently suggested in neurosurgical patients. "
|9.||Cytidine Diphosphate Choline (Citicoline)IBA
07/01/1991 - "We have found a trend towards a greater improvement in motor, cognitive and psychic alterations in the patients treated with CDP-choline, as well as a shortening of the stay in the hospital ward in the patients receiving this drug that initially presented with severe head injuries."
07/01/1991 - "A single blind randomized study has been conducted in 216 patients with severe or moderate head injury, with the aim of comparing the evolution of those that received only conventional treatment with the evolution of those treated with CDP-choline. "
07/01/1991 - "Effects of CDP-choline on the recovery of patients with head injury."
05/01/1988 - "[National inquiry on the outcome of severe head injuries: analysis of 921 injured patients treated with CDP-choline]."
10/01/1995 - "In studies carried out on the treatment of patients with head trauma, CDP-choline accelerated the recovery from post-traumatic coma and the recuperation of walking ability, achieved a better final functional result and reduced the hospital stay of these patients, in addition to improving the cognitive and memory disturbances which are observed after a head trauma of lesser severity and which constitute the disorder known as postconcussion syndrome. "
|10.||Apolipoproteins E (ApoE)IBA
12/01/2006 - "Possession of an APOE epsilon4 allele is associated with poor outcome after head injury in clinical studies. "
11/01/2005 - "Previous preliminary studies have suggested that possession of the APOE epsilon4 allele is associated with a poor outcome after head injury. "
08/01/2003 - "Although this study provides additional evidence that a late decline may occur after head injury, there was no clear relation to APOE genotype. "
03/28/2000 - "We examined the effects of head injury and APOE genotype on AD risk in a large family study. "
04/01/1997 - "In the present study, we examined the possibility that the diminished recovery of apoE-deficient mice from head injury is related to a reduction in their ability to counteract oxidative damage. "
06/01/1999 - "Although no set standard is available for the management of patients with severe head injury, improved outcomes following severe head injury are seen with complete and rapid physiologic resuscitation and specific strategies that decrease ICP."
06/01/2000 - "Strong class II evidence suggests that raising the blood pressure in hypotensive, severe head injury patients improves outcome in proportion to the efficacy of the resuscitation."
01/01/2009 - "Factors responsible for improved outcome in severe head injury patients are improvement in early recognition, resuscitation and triage, coupled with prompt computed tomography (CT) scanning and aggressive surgical management."
03/01/2004 - "Opportunities for improvement in head trauma care are needed to focus on initial resuscitation and appropriate surgical management."
04/01/2012 - " studies have also failed to confirm the suggestion that albumin resuscitation may be associated with a worse outcome in head injury. "
|2.||Intensive Care (Surgical Intensive Care)
10/01/1996 - "Rationalization (using rational management, i.e., based on good evidence) of the intensive care management of severe head injury with the development of widely accepted guidelines may result in an improvement in the quality of care of the head-injured patient."
04/01/1998 - "Severe head injury in children--analyzing the better outcome over a decade and the role of major improvements in intensive care."
04/01/1998 - "We suggest a few possible explanations, including improvement of intensive care, as the main cause, for the improved outcome after severe head injury in children and present the predictors of outcome observed in a contemporary series. "
05/01/2002 - "Cerebral blood flow was monitored by rheoencephalography, which helped timely detect the changes in cerebral blood flow in patients with craniocerebral injuries during different ventilation protocols used in intensive care. "
06/01/2006 - "This study investigated the accuracy of health information about head injury pertaining to intensive care on the Internet, and correlated website characteristics with the quality of their content. "
06/01/1995 - "Repeated decompressive craniectomy after head injury in children: two successful cases as result of improved neuromonitoring."
12/01/2012 - "The authors report the case of a 25-year-old man who benefited a unilateral decompressive craniectomy after a severe head trauma. "
12/01/2011 - "Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is helpful in lowering the intracranial pressure in patients with severe head injuries. "
01/01/2016 - "The goal of our study was to analyze the effect of decompressive craniectomy in a murine model of head injury. "
01/01/2013 - "Contralateral haematoma secondary to decompressive craniectomy performed for severe head trauma: a descriptive study of 15 cases."
|4.||Artificial Respiration (Mechanical Ventilation)
01/01/1996 - "If not eliminated by an increase of mechanical ventilation during general anaesthesia, it may raise intracranial pressure in head trauma patients. "
10/01/2014 - "Despite low in-hospital mortality, the cumulative mortality rate among NCTPs at 1 year after discharge is significant, particularly in the presence of head injury, spine injury, mechanical ventilation, high injury severity, or prolonged length of hospital stay. "
10/01/2014 - "Cumulative 1-year mortality in NCTPs with a head injury was 51.1% and increased to 73.2% if the Injury Severity Score was 25 or higher and to 78.7% if mechanical ventilation was required. "
09/01/2013 - "A descriptive, longitudinal, prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial that included 20 critical patients with severe craniocerebral trauma who were receiving mechanical ventilation and who were admitted to the intensive care unit. "
07/01/2013 - "Group A consists of 20 unconscious patients with severe head injury under mechanical ventilation and Group B consists of 20 conscious self-ventilated patients. "
02/01/2008 - "One hundred and ninety-nine patients underwent 218 craniotomies for head injury during the 78-month study period. "
07/01/2013 - "Cranial bony decompressions in the management of head injuries: decompressive craniotomy or craniectomy?"
06/18/2013 - "A total of 216 severe craniocerebral injury patients with scores of Glasgow coma scale 3-8 underwent craniotomy at Affiliated Qilu Hospital, Shandong University.And"
07/01/2011 - "A high index of suspicion enabled early detection and prompt decompressive craniotomy that stemmed the progressive loss of vision in this patient with an uncommon but symptomatic intracranial aerocele and cranio-facial compound head injury."
08/01/2010 - "From 2,400 head injuries, we performed a total of 350 craniotomies. "