|1.||Schizophrenia (Dementia Praecox)
|3.||Parkinson Disease (Parkinson's Disease)
|1.||Aarsland, Dag: 7 articles (06/2014 - 11/2006)|
|2.||Goetz, Christopher G: 7 articles (03/2014 - 08/2004)|
|3.||Goetz, C G: 6 articles (12/2005 - 09/2000)|
|4.||Aleman, André: 5 articles (01/2015 - 03/2007)|
|5.||Ballard, Clive: 5 articles (12/2014 - 12/2004)|
|6.||Terao, Takeshi: 5 articles (01/2014 - 08/2003)|
|7.||Litvinenko, I V: 5 articles (01/2011 - 01/2007)|
|8.||Cummings, Jeffrey L: 5 articles (07/2007 - 01/2002)|
|9.||Ungvari, Gabor S: 4 articles (10/2015 - 03/2011)|
|10.||Rascol, Olivier: 4 articles (10/2015 - 12/2009)|
|1.||Antipsychotic Agents (Antipsychotics)IBA
01/01/2012 - "This focus contrasts with the development of first and second-generation antipsychotics; these drugs were considered effective when they treated psychotic symptoms such as auditory hallucinations, suspiciousness, delusions, and disorganized behaviors. "
02/01/2008 - "Antipsychotic drugs, which can be quite effective in combating hallucinations are often ineffective in reducing cognitive impairment and can potentiate cognitive impairment. "
07/20/2015 - "Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that patients on concurrent antipsychotics had significantly more delusions or hallucinations, longer illness duration, greater side effects, and more likely to be treated as inpatients and in major hospitals (i.e., Level-III hospital). "
03/01/2015 - "Furthermore, neuroleptic agents can help control hallucinations. "
05/01/2014 - "Our goal was to investigate demographic and clinical differences between two subgroups of DD patients, those with nonprominent hallucinations and those without hallucinations, and to determine treatment effectiveness of long-acting antipsychotics in these patients. "
|2.||salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM)IBA
10/01/2009 - "Compared to bilateral or sham stimulation, rTMS of the left temporo-parietal region appears most effective in reducing auditory hallucinations, and additionally may have an effect on general psychopathology. "
04/01/2010 - "During the double-blind phase, active temporal rTMS did not result in significantly greater improvement in hallucination scores than sham rTMS to the vertex, apart from a reduction in distress scores. "
08/01/2005 - "Active treatment did not result in a greater therapeutic effect than sham on any measure except for the loudness of hallucinations where there was a significant reduction in the active versus the sham group over time. "
06/30/2004 - "Patients' hallucination scores improved from baseline with both real and sham TMS, and there was no significant difference between real and sham treatments. "
07/15/2005 - "Hallucination Change Score was more improved for rTMS relative to sham stimulation (p = .008) as was the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (p = .0004). "
|3.||Clozapine (Clozaril)FDA LinkGeneric
03/01/1995 - "Clozapine in low doses is effective in the treatment of drug-induced delusions and hallucinations in PD."
06/01/1998 - "Neuroendocrine evidence that clozapine's serotonergic antagonism is relevant to its efficacy in treating hallucinations and other positive schizophrenic symptoms."
01/01/1997 - "Treatment of visual hallucinations is treatment of the underlying cause although some newer drugs such as clozapine may also be helpful for selected patients."
10/01/2007 - "To study the therapeutic effects on auditory hallucinations refractory to clozapine with 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied on the left temporoparietal cortex. "
10/01/2015 - "Patients prescribed clozapine had multiple markers of greater global illness severity/chronicity and decreased satisfaction with treatment by the families, but similar QOL and less delusions and hallucinations than patients not prescribed clozapine."
|4.||olanzapine (Zyprexa)FDA Link
02/01/2008 - "An improved total Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score was not correlated with the plasma olanzapine concentration, but individual BPRS scores related to improvement of suspiciousness, hallucinations, and blunted affect were significantly correlated with plasma olanzapine concentration. "
01/01/2001 - "Of the patients without hallucinations or delusions at baseline (N = 75), the placebo-treated patients showed significantly greater development of these symptoms compared with olanzapine-treated patients overall (NPI/NH hallucinations + delusions mean change score, +2.73 vs. +0.27, p = .006). "
08/01/2011 - "Administration of olanzapine resulted in a partial remission of visual hallucinations. "
07/01/2005 - "Therapy with olanzapine (OLZ) 5 mg/day led to a progressive clearance of visual hallucinations in seven days and was gradually reduced and withdrawn. "
09/01/2002 - "We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, unforced titration, parallel design study (2:1 drug to placebo randomization ratio) using olanzapine (2.5-10 mg/day to effect) in 30 PD patients with drug-induced hallucinations. "
|5.||Risperidone (Risperdal Consta)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2004 - "Risperidone presents a major and dose-dependent antidopaminergic action and seems to be preferable when hallucinations and delusions are prevailing symptoms, even if it gives good results on aggression and wandering. "
01/01/2015 - "The patient reported no hallucinations or apparent delusions several hours later and was eventually discharged with resolution of psychotic symptoms and continuation of risperidone for 10 days. "
01/01/2014 - "Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. "
05/01/2013 - "The patient was started on low-dose risperidone, which resulted in the complete resolution of the visual hallucinations. "
03/01/2005 - "In addition, the HTR6 T267C polymorphism has been linked to risperidone response for positive symptoms (delusions and hallucinations). "
|6.||quetiapine (Seroquel)FDA Link
01/01/2009 - "While there was no significant difference in the change in REM duration pre- vs. post-treatment in either arm, patients randomized to quetiapine improved on the CGIS (p = .03) and the hallucination item of the BPRS (p = .02). "
12/01/2006 - "The results show that quetiapine is effective in reducing behavioral symptoms, deliria and hallucinations, aggressiveness, and sleep disturbances. "
01/01/2004 - "Quetiapine was effective in the treatment of hallucinations and delusions in PD. "
02/01/2000 - "Quetiapine was markedly effective in controlling visual hallucinations in six of these patients. "
01/01/2004 - "We set out to demonstrate the short- and long-term efficacy of quetiapine, an antipsychotic drug, in controlling hallucinations and delusions in parkinsonian patients without worsening their motor function. "
11/01/2015 - "Unfortunately, ketamine causes adverse reactions including hallucinations and is associated with a high prevalence of abuse among adolescents. "
01/01/2015 - "We interpret the observation of ketamine-induced auditory verbal hallucinations in the context of the reduced perceptual environment of the MRI scanner and offer an explanation grounded in predictive coding models of perception and psychosis - the brain fills in expected perceptual inputs, and it does so more in situations of altered perceptual input. "
01/01/2015 - "Ketamine-Induced Hallucinations."
01/01/2015 - "Ketamine in the dose of 0.3 mg/kg provided sufficient sedation for allaying procedural discomfort due to less sedation, less positional difficulty, early verbal response, no hallucinations, no recall of performance of procedure, and good patient satisfaction."
07/01/2014 - "The drug can produce a dissociative state and hallucinations, making ketamine a favorite recreational agent among drug addicts. "
|8.||Cholinesterase Inhibitors (Anticholinesterases)IBA
01/01/2002 - "Early studies indicate cholinesterase inhibitors can be beneficial for treating the hallucinations and behavior disturbances that afflict these patients and might also improve cognition."
06/01/2011 - "Cholinesterase inhibitors as a drug class have been shown to have beneficial effects on cognition in DLB and PDD, and may help to alleviate some psychiatric symptoms, such as apathy, anxiety, hallucinations, and delusions. "
11/01/2002 - "The cholinesterase inhibitors have shown to be useful in the treatment of hallucinations, anxiety and apathy."
01/01/2015 - "Musical hallucinations treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors."
08/01/2013 - "Review of options for pharmacological treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms suggests that the best evidence for the value of treatment is for cholinesterase inhibitors, with an indication that people with visual hallucinations are particularly likely to benefit. "
|9.||Dopamine (Intropin)FDA LinkGeneric
08/22/2009 - "Pharmacological treatments, which block the dopamine system, are effective for delusions and hallucinations but less so for disabling cognitive and motivational impairments. "
09/01/2005 - "According to this mechanism, hallucination is the result of modulation of the efficacy of corticostriatal synaptic inputs and changes in spiny cell activity due to the rise of striatal dopamine concentration (or due to other reasons). "
01/01/2014 - "While current antipsychotic medications-typically dopamine D2 antagonists-adequately address positive symptoms of the disease, such as the acute hallucinations and delusions, they fail to substantially improve negative features, such as social isolation, and can further compromise poor cognitive function in schizophrenic patients. "
09/17/2013 - "The decrease of dopamine pre-synaptic markers implies neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) in these DLB/PDD cases, while the increase of D₃ receptors in striatal regions could be attributed to dopaminergic medication history and psychiatric states such as hallucinations. "
07/01/2013 - "Altered dopamine synthesis capacity is unlikely to underlie subclinical hallucinations, suggesting that although there may be a phenomenological psychosis continuum, there are distinctions at the neurobiological level."
|10.||donepezil (Aricept)FDA LinkGeneric
09/01/1998 - "Treatment of DLB patients with donepezil for 12 weeks most commonly improved hallucinations, and sometimes improved cognition and overall function. "
09/01/2003 - "Donepezil may ameliorate visual hallucinations in PD patients, but controlled, double-blind trials are necessary to further clarify the effect of this drug on VHs in PD."
01/01/2013 - "Psychosis is assessed every 4 weeks using the Parkinson Psychosis Questionnaire (PPQ) and patients with PD whose PPQ-B score (hallucinations) and PPQ-C score (delusions) have been zero for 8 weeks before enrolment are randomised to two arms: patients receiving donepezil hydrochloride or patients receiving placebo. "
04/01/2007 - "Donepezil in the treatment of musical hallucinations."
03/28/2006 - "Correlation of visual hallucinations with occipital rCBF changes by donepezil in DLB."
02/01/2002 - "After treatment, the hallucinations disappeared in two patients and the motor deficit improved dramatically. "
01/01/2013 - "Only two participants noted an improvement in the auditory hallucinations and only one of them reported an improvement that was sustained after treatment completion. "
08/01/2011 - "After treatment finished, he began to experience complex, vivid, elaborate and colored visual hallucinations. "
12/01/2007 - "The visual hallucinations ceased promptly after treatment with antiepileptic and anti-NCC medications. "
11/01/2002 - "The paranoid delusions and hallucinations stopped one day after treatment discontinuation. "
|2.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
05/15/1996 - "Conventional pharmacotherapy is usually effective in controlling positive symptoms of the disease, such as delusions and hallucinations. "
09/01/2005 - "Despite the effectiveness of anti-psychotic pharmacotherapy, residual hallucinations and delusions do not completely resolve in some medicated patients. "
01/01/2005 - "Three children had features of hypersynchronic activity in EEG: one child undergoing immunosuppressive drug therapy and with a visual hallucination in context of a reversible posterior leucoencephalopathy showed a focal slow background activity, whereas three children had a sharp wave activity. "
09/01/2004 - "Combined use of acupuncture and pharmacotherapy for treatment of auditory hallucination."
05/01/2003 - "Psychosis characterized by hallucination or delusion, which occurs during drug therapy of parkinsonian patients, is one of the limiting factors for the control of motor symptoms or complications. "
07/01/2014 - "The case presented here illustrates how AWP hypnosis helped a 13-year-old girl access the internal material that shaped the form and content of visual and auditory hallucinations and interfered with her social and academic functioning. "
07/01/2014 - "Automatic Word Processing (AWP) hypnosis is a novel way to help a person realize that the hallucinations they perceive as external and distressful are really internally generated phenomena often based upon his or her life experiences. "
03/01/2012 - "Suggested visual hallucination without hypnosis enhances activity in visual areas of the brain."
01/01/2012 - "Whereas high hypnotizable participants in both hypnosis and wake conditions reported comparable levels of conviction in the hallucination suggestion, hypnotized highs performed poorer on the secondary task when the stimulus was present. "
06/01/2009 - "Suggested visual hallucinations in and out of hypnosis."
|4.||Renal Dialysis (Hemodialysis)
01/01/2007 - "[Adaptative disorder with dermatozoic hallucinations in a patient on hemodialysis]."
01/01/1998 - "Musical hallucinations after childbirth in a female patient on hemodialysis."
04/01/1980 - "Effect of hemodialysis on hallucinations."
08/01/2007 - "Emergent hemodialysis (4-h/session) was given; the neuropsychotic symptoms, including agitation, delirium, and visual and auditory hallucinations, greatly abated after the second session. "
01/01/2007 - "We report a female case treated with hemodialysis over 20 years who demonstrated good social functioning, until she suffered from delusional disorder with persecutory delusions involving medical staff performing the dialysis and also auditory hallucinations involving them. "
|5.||Institutionalization (Institutionalized Persons)
10/01/2005 - "Presence of hallucinations is also associated with institutionalization and mortality."
08/01/2004 - "In multivariate models, adjusted for demographic and social variables, four clinical features emerged as the predominant predictors of institutionalization: cognitive impairment level, physical aggression, hallucinations and depressive symptoms. "
08/01/2000 - "Both motor and neuropsychiatric symptoms contributed to institutionalization, but the presence of hallucinations was the strongest predictor. "
10/01/1995 - "Symptoms of this nature, which can include frightening hallucinations or anxiety of phobic proportions, are subjectively distressing and can lead both to unsafe or violent situations as well as to the preventable use of inappropriate medication, physical restraint, and frequently to institutionalization. "
08/01/2000 - "This finding indicates it is possible that effective treatment of hallucinations may reduce the need for institutionalization in patients with Parkinson's disease."