|3.||Graves Disease (Basedow Disease)
|5.||Thyroid Neoplasms (Thyroid Cancer)
|1.||Hegedüs, Laszlo: 12 articles (03/2015 - 02/2003)|
|2.||Bonnema, Steen Joop: 7 articles (12/2012 - 01/2005)|
|3.||Dralle, H: 6 articles (08/2010 - 01/2001)|
|4.||Lewiński, Andrzej: 6 articles (01/2005 - 12/2003)|
|5.||Bonnema, Steen J: 5 articles (03/2015 - 02/2003)|
|6.||Grupe, Peter: 5 articles (03/2015 - 07/2006)|
|7.||Bossowski, Artur: 5 articles (01/2013 - 10/2002)|
|8.||Pinchera, A: 5 articles (05/2011 - 01/2002)|
|9.||Nielsen, Viveque Egsgaard: 5 articles (08/2010 - 01/2005)|
|10.||Lange, Dariusz: 5 articles (01/2009 - 01/2004)|
06/01/2011 - "The efficacy of low and high fixed dose radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in patients with toxic nodular goiter was investigated. "
06/01/2011 - "Efficacy of low and high fixed dose radioactive iodine therapy in patients with toxic nodular goiter."
07/01/2015 - "In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical value of elastography on nodular goiters in mild iodine-deficient regions without excluding patients according to nodule characteristics. "
11/01/2001 - "In a recent study, we demonstrated that pretreatment with a single, low dose of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) doubles 24-h thyroid radioactive iodine uptake in patients with nodular goiter. "
03/01/1966 - "Studies of iodine metabolism in endemic nodular goiter."
|2.||Thyrotropin (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone)FDA Link
07/01/2011 - "(131)I therapy is effective in reducing the volume of large nodular goiters (thyroid volume [TV]), mainly after stimulation with recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH). "
01/01/2005 - "The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chronic LT4 treatment at mildly inhibiting serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) doses on bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical bone remodeling markers in a cohort of women with benign nodular goiter, and to verify the efficacy of the treatment on nodule size. "
01/01/2005 - "Recombinant human thyrotropin markedly changes the 131I kinetics during 131I therapy of patients with nodular goiter: an evaluation by a randomized double-blinded trial."
01/01/2014 - "In this report, we describe the case of a 50-year-old Caucasian woman with a normal thyroid-stimulating hormone level who underwent surgery to treat a multi-nodular goiter. "
12/01/2012 - "In particular, recombinant human thyrotropin has gained interest because this compound significantly amplifies the effect of (131)I therapy in patients with nontoxic nodular goiter."
|3.||Thyroxine (Levothyroxine)FDA LinkGeneric
11/01/1992 - "The efficacy of treatment with TSH suppressive doses of L-thyroxine was evaluated by echography in 35 patients with euthyroid nodular goiter. "
11/01/1992 - "[Efficacy of L-thyroxine (L-T4) therapy on the volume of the thyroid gland and nodules in patients with euthyroid nodular goiter (ENG)]."
05/01/2007 - "55 patients with benign nodular goiter after the first PEI session during the whole study period (from 3 till 12 months after PEI) daily received euthyrox in a dosage - 50 mkg. "
09/15/2005 - "Although levothyroxine is the mostly prescribed medicament in Germany, its therapeutic effectiveness in nodular goiter was never studied in a randomized, double-blind trial with sufficient power. "
01/01/2005 - "Effects on bone mineral density by treatment of benign nodular goiter with mildly suppressive doses of L-thyroxine in a cohort women study."
|4.||Calcitonin (Calcitonin, Eel)FDA LinkGeneric
06/01/1999 - "Their mean basal calcitonin level was 7.8+/-0.4 pg/mL with a range of 5-27 pg/mL. Seven hundred seventy-three patients with nodular goiter were included in the study (female:male 586:187) with the mean age of 46.1 years (range 17-78). "
03/14/2013 - "Calcitonin estimation in patients with nodular goiter and its significance for early detection of MTC: european comments to the guidelines of the American Thyroid Association."
01/01/2013 - "There is a current debate in the medical literature about plasma calcitonin screening in patients with nodular goiter (NG). "
11/01/2012 - "During follow-up, nodular goiter was found with normal levels of calcitonin and inconclusive cytology. "
08/01/2010 - "FAMILY 2: In a 46-year-old female patient with nodular goiter thyroidectomy, central and left lateral lymph node dissection was done because of elevated calcitonin levels. "
11/01/1993 - "[Interactions between serum antibodies of patients with autoimmune thyropathies and isolated cells of diffuse toxic euthyroid nodular goiter]."
12/01/1982 - "[Antithyroid antibodies in euthyroid nodular goiter after surgical treatment]."
09/01/2014 - "Based on the clinical diagnosis, patients were divided into four groups: AIT with nodules (N-AIT, 14.9%); nodular Graves disease (N-GD, 2.8%); nodular goiter and negative thyroid antibodies (NGAb-, 68.4%); and nodular goiter with positive thyroid antibodies (NGAb+, 13.9%). "
05/01/2014 - "Nodular goiter with thyroid antibodies in chronic idiopathic urticaria."
10/01/2013 - "US thyroid abnormalities were found in 101 subjects (50.3%): 91 nodular goiters (45.2%) and 13 US-thyroiditis (6.5%) associated with positive auto-antibodies in 11 of them. "
09/01/1996 - "[Hormone suppression therapy in benign nodular goiter]."
04/01/1986 - "These results suggest that episodic degenerative discharge of thyroid hormone from nodular goiters may be a cause of impaired or blunted TSH response to TRH, frequently observed in patients with common nontoxic nodular goiters."
04/01/1986 - "Further data supporting episodic degenerative discharge of thyroid hormone from nodular goiters."
04/03/1981 - "Acquired refractoriness to thyroid hormone action in treated toxic nodular goiter."
02/15/1980 - "[Hormone picture in female patients with diffuse and nodular goiter]."
|8.||Antithyroid Agents (Antithyroid Drugs)IBA
12/01/1995 - "These findings suggest that during pregnancy PEI appears to be a rapid and safe therapy for toxic nodular goiter and an effective alternative to the administration of antithyroid drugs."
07/01/2006 - "Alternative treatments, including the temporary use of antithyroid drugs, and surgery for nodular goiters, may be considered. "
05/01/2002 - "There are two explanations for this correlation: the level of serum AG may be an indirect index of the level of serum goitrogens, and higher serum AG and Increased frequency of nodular goiters might be a reflection of loss of residual renal function. "
11/01/2014 - "Treatment options for toxic nodular goiter in cats are similar to that used in humans and include surgical thyroidectomy, radioiodine, and antithyroid drugs. "
12/01/2008 - "Overt hyperthyroidism is treated with antithyroid drugs and/or radioiodine therapy or surgery according to the underlying disease (toxic nodular goiter, Graves' disease)."
07/01/2003 - "Sixteen patients (6 men, 10 women, age 66+/-13 yr), who had diffuse or nodular goiter with or without circulating thyroid autoantibodies, were classified as Type 1 AIT; 39 patients (27 men, 12 women, age 65+/-13 yr) with apparently normal thyroids were classified as Type 2 AIT. "
09/01/1988 - "In 19% to 21% of patients with toxic nodular goiter underlying autoimmunological process have been established by the detection of high levels of serum autoantibodies (ATMA and MAb). "
01/01/1987 - "The role of autoimmune phenomena in the pathogenesis of AIIT appeared to be limited, because circulating thyroid autoantibodies were undetectable in AIIT patients without underlying thyroid disorders or with nodular goiter. "
03/01/2015 - " relationship between nodular goiter with thyroid function, thyroid autoantibodies levels,sex,age,and hepatitis C virus infection were statistically analyzed. "
06/01/1995 - "Most of the function-related items, ultrasonogram and autoantibodies were selected commonly, while TBII and uptake in hyperthyroidism, FNA, Tg and scintigram in nodular goiter were considered to be of specific needs. "
|10.||Pentagastrin (Peptavlon)FDA Link
03/01/2012 - "Patients with MTC in remission (n=24) or in persistence (n=18), RET gene mutations carriers (n=14), patients with nodular goiter (n=69), and healthy volunteers (n=16) were submitted to pentagastrin and Ca (25 mg/kg) tests. "
04/01/1994 - "Eight (0.57%) patients (7 with nontoxic nodular goiter and 1 with AFTN) had elevated basal serum CT levels, ranging between 55-10,000 pg/mL. The pentagastrin test was abnormal in all of them. "
11/01/2004 - "The mother (82 yr old) showed a nodular goiter but was negative both for basal and pentagastrin stimulated calcitonin. "
04/01/2006 - "We report herein the case of a 47-years old female, submitted to total thyroidectomy for nodular goiter, with slightly increased serum calcitonin levels and positive pentagastrin test. "
03/01/2013 - "Stimulation with calcium gluconate produced 10-fold (nodular goiter), 15-fold (thyroiditis), and 21-fold (thyroid neoplasia other than MTC) calcitonin increases over baseline, as opposed to 5-fold, 10-fold, and 8-fold increases after stimulation with pentagastrin. "
03/01/2011 - "HT is a cause for diffuse or nodular goiter that may impinge on vital structures in the neck and thyroidectomy is safe and effective for relief of compressive symptoms."
05/01/2011 - "The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of reflux laryngopharyngitis in patients with nodular goiter before and after uncomplicated total thyroidectomy (TT) using a prospective study in University Hospital setting. "
08/01/2010 - "Six hundred thirteen patients who underwent total thyroidectomy between 2005 and 2008 for nodular goiter were included in this study. "
12/01/1999 - "(1) Single-institution study of patients with bilateral BMNG treated by thyroidectomy over a 40-year period, examining the changing pattern of use of bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy and total thyroidectomy in the initial surgical treatment of nodular goiter. "
01/01/1998 - "The different surgical options for the treatment of non toxic nodular goiter led the Authors to study the residual thyroid function following conservative surgery (subtotal thyroidectomy, lobectomy and enucleation). "
|2.||Laser Therapy (Surgery, Laser)
01/01/2014 - "Surgery represents the gold standard treatment in patients with euthyroid massive nodular goiter, although new techniques - e.g., percutaneous laser ablation - are helpful in subjects at high surgical risk or refusing operation."
01/01/2007 - "Percutaneous laser ablation in the treatment of toxic and pretoxic nodular goiter."
02/01/2003 - "Within a few years, the introduction of recombinant human TSH and laser therapy may profoundly alter the nonsurgical treatment of simple nodular goiter."
07/01/2014 - "Laser ablation and 131-iodine: a 24-month pilot study of combined treatment for large toxic nodular goiter."
|5.||Heterologous Transplantation (Xenotransplantation)