|2.||Tic Disorders (Tic Disorder)
|3.||Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive)
|4.||Schizophrenia (Dementia Praecox)
|5.||Bipolar Disorder (Mania)
|1.||Leckman, James F: 21 articles (08/2015 - 04/2002)|
|2.||Singer, Harvey S: 15 articles (06/2015 - 08/2002)|
|3.||Cavanna, Andrea E: 15 articles (10/2014 - 10/2008)|
|4.||Porta, Mauro: 14 articles (01/2016 - 01/2008)|
|5.||Servello, Domenico: 12 articles (01/2016 - 01/2008)|
|6.||King, Robert A: 11 articles (07/2015 - 04/2002)|
|7.||Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle: 11 articles (04/2015 - 03/2006)|
|8.||Liu, Shiguo: 10 articles (12/2015 - 05/2011)|
|9.||Okun, Michael S: 10 articles (04/2015 - 07/2007)|
|10.||Sandor, Paul: 9 articles (07/2015 - 02/2002)|
|1.||Haloperidol (Haldol)FDA LinkGeneric
08/01/1979 - "Neuroendocrine effects of haloperidol in an adolescent with Gilles de la Tourette's disease and delayed onset of puberty."
08/26/1968 - "Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: remission with haloperidol."
11/01/1999 - "Six Tourette's syndrome men aged 14-48 years resistant to haloperidol participated in the study. "
10/01/1982 - "A prospective clinical and biochemical study on the effects of treatment with haloperidol has been performed in seven patients with Tourette syndrome. "
11/01/1978 - "Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: a 20-month study of the effects of stressful life events and haloperidol on symptom frequency."
|2.||Pimozide (Orap)FDA Link
03/10/1999 - "Short-term versus longer term pimozide therapy in Tourette's syndrome: a preliminary study."
03/01/1984 - "Controlled study of pimozide vs. placebo in Tourette's syndrome."
10/01/1987 - "Significant interindividual variability of pimozide pharmacokinetics was found in both adults and children with Tourette's syndrome. "
10/01/1987 - "Mean elimination half-life of pimozide in children was 66 hours compared with 111 hours in adults with Tourette's syndrome. "
10/01/1987 - "A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of pimozide was made in children and adults with Tourette's syndrome. "
04/01/2004 - "Evidence from pre-clinical infrahuman investigations, open-label clinical trials, and a single controlled trial found acute nicotine treatment potentiated up to 4 weeks neuroleptic-induced reductions of dyskinetic symptoms characterizing Tourette's syndrome (TS). "
10/01/2001 - "Preliminary clinical studies indicate possible therapeutic benefits of nicotine in the treatment of Tourette's syndrome (TS). "
10/01/2014 - "Lastly, nicotine has been reported to attenuate the dyskinetic symptoms of Tourette's disorder. "
06/01/2005 - "Excitability of motor cortex inhibitory circuits in Tourette syndrome before and after single dose nicotine."
04/01/2004 - "Clinical and attentional effects of acute nicotine treatment in Tourette's syndrome."
|4.||Clonidine (ST 155)FDA LinkGeneric
03/01/1987 - "Clonidine has been suggested to be effective in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS), but no double-blind study has ever evaluated its effects using objective measures. "
12/01/1980 - "Clonidine ameliorates Gilles de la Tourette syndrome."
12/01/1986 - "Following an open trial of clonidine hydrochloride (3 to 8 micrograms/kg/day for 12 weeks), we studied the behavioral, cardiovascular, and neurochemical effects of abrupt clonidine withdrawal in seven patients with Tourette's syndrome aged 9 to 13 years. "
01/01/2016 - "To evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of clonidine adhesive patch in treating Tourette syndrome (TS). "
01/01/2016 - "Clinical observation on treatment of Tourette syndrome in Chinese children by clonidine adhesive patch."
|5.||aripiprazole (Abilify)FDA Link
10/01/2014 - "Case report on Tourette syndrome treated successfully with aripiprazole."
12/01/2006 - "Aripiprazole is effective in the treatment of Tourette's disorder."
08/01/2013 - "A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of aripiprazole in children and adolescents with Tourette's disorder."
08/01/2011 - "[A multicenter controlled study on aripiprazole treatment for children with Tourette syndrome in China]."
12/01/2009 - "Aripiprazole in children and adolescents with Tourette's disorder: an open-label safety and tolerability study."
|6.||Risperidone (Risperdal Consta)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/1996 - "Nineteen patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) were treated with risperidone, at a mean daily dose of 1.5 mg. Of those, 41% responded positively, 35% felt that it had made no difference, while it made 24% worse. "
04/01/2012 - "Randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) of risperidone versus traditional agents for Tourette's syndrome were identified, and eligible studies were included according to our established strategy. "
04/08/2003 - "A placebo-controlled trial of risperidone in Tourette syndrome."
11/01/2002 - "While risperidone is not usually known to induce dysphoria or depression in patients treated for other psychiatric disorders, previous short-term 4- to 12-week trials of risperidone for Tourette's disorder have reported a 2.6% to 30.8% incidence of depression. "
02/01/2002 - "A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed to determine the efficacy and tolerability of 8 weeks of treatment with risperidone in the management of 48 adolescent and adult patients with Tourette syndrome. "
|7.||Antipsychotic Agents (Antipsychotics)IBA
09/01/2009 - "This study evaluated effects of neuroleptics on body mass index for age and sex (body mass index Z scores) in a matched cohort of neuroleptic-treated (n = 16) and nonneuroleptic-treated (n = 29) children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome. "
07/01/2014 - "The role of atypical antipsychotics for treatment of Tourette's syndrome: an overview."
01/01/2012 - "Update on the role of antipsychotics in the treatment of Tourette syndrome."
08/01/2011 - "Model fit showed the following dissociation: while motor skills were affected in all patient groups, reinforcement learning was selectively enhanced in unmedicated patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and impaired by neuroleptics. "
07/01/2010 - "At a single center, all children with Tourette syndrome requiring antipsychotics were systematically monitored for metabolic and neurologic side effects every 6 months. "
|8.||etiracetam (levetiracetam)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2010 - "Although trials performed to evaluate the efficacy of levetiracetam in the treatment of Tourette syndrome have provided conflicting results, it may be useful in some patients. "
01/01/2010 - "The established safe profile of levetiracetam makes this drug an alternative for treatment if intolerance to currently used drugs appears, but additional evaluation with larger and longer duration controlled studies are necessary to assess the real efficacy in patients with Tourette syndrome."
09/15/2007 - "A double blind randomized placebo control trial of levetiracetam in Tourette syndrome."
01/01/2010 - "Levetiracetam as an alternative therapy for Tourette syndrome."
11/01/2009 - "An open-label, prospective study of levetiracetam in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome."
|9.||atomoxetine (Strattera)FDA LinkGeneric
09/01/2006 - "Is atomoxetine also effective in patients suffering from Tourette syndrome?"
11/01/2014 - "[Treatment of Tourette syndrome by tomoxetine hydrochloride in older children]."
01/01/2008 - "Atomoxetine treatment of ADHD in children with comorbid Tourette syndrome."
08/01/2007 - "Atomoxetine treatment of ADHD in Tourette syndrome: reduction in motor cortex inhibition correlates with clinical improvement."
01/01/2008 - "This study examines changes in severity of tics and ADHD during atomoxetine treatment in ADHD patients with Tourette syndrome (TS). "
11/01/2011 - "We report 2 boys, 11 and 7 years old, whose Tourette's disorder improved significantly after a period of repeated, sustained practice of activities requiring reflexive responses One boy engaged in physical exercise including hand-eye co-ordination (table tennis for 6 hours every weekday) and the other learned foreign languages (5 languages within 3 years). "
06/01/2007 - "However, individuals with Tourette's syndrome appear to co-opt normal developmental processes in circuits that subserve age-related improvement in self-regulatory control while presumably struggling to maintain adequate task performance."
11/30/2012 - "Previous studies reporting executive deficits in Tourette syndrome (TS) often failed to control for co-morbid conditions. "
11/01/2004 - "The co-existence of Tourette's syndrome and RBD was confirmed after polysomnographic studies using the standard criteria. "
01/01/2016 - "Few differences were observed between the pure-Tourette syndrome and Tourette syndrome and one or two co-morbid diagnoses groups. "
|1.||Deep Brain Stimulation
07/15/2008 - "Therapy-refractory Tourette syndrome: beneficial outcome with globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation."
01/01/2012 - "Bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been considered to be an effective treatment for refractory Tourette's syndrome. "
01/01/2013 - "Deep brain stimulation (DBS) remains an experimental but promising treatment for patients with severe refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS). "
04/01/2011 - "Ten years ago deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been introduced as an alternative and promising treatment option for patients suffering from severe Tourette syndrome (TS). "
09/01/2013 - "In 1999, deep brain stimulation was introduced as a novel treatment option for patients with intractable Tourette syndrome. "
07/01/2009 - "[Efficacy of clonidine transdermal patch for treatment of Tourette's syndrome in children]."
08/01/2002 - "Nicotine delivered by gum or transdermal patch can provide short term relief for exacerbations of Tourette's Syndrome, but its use is limited by frequent toxicity, primarily nausea."
01/01/2004 - "This report describes the use of cingulotomy and subsequent limbic leucotomy in an adolescent boy with Tourette's Disorder for SIB. "
01/01/2004 - "Psychosurgery for self-injurious behavior in Tourette's disorder."
05/01/1995 - "Longitudinal evolution of prefrontal leucotomy in Tourette's syndrome."
09/01/1993 - "The metabolic effects of limbic leucotomy in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome."
08/01/1990 - "The treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome by limbic leucotomy."
08/01/2000 - "To evaluate the safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin A (BTX) injections in the treatment of tics in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS). "
03/07/2012 - "Recent studies on the modeling of motor tics induced by focal injections of bicuculline to the striatum, a putative model of Tourette syndrome, have shown that tics induce a widespread modulation within both segments of the globus pallidus. "
05/01/1998 - "Vocal tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome treated with botulinum toxin injections."
07/01/2014 - "The application and efficacy of combined neurofeedback therapy and imagery training in adolescents with Tourette syndrome."
04/01/2015 - "In this review we propose that neurofeedback may also reflect a valuable therapeutic option to treat executive control functions in Gilles-de-la-Tourette syndrome (GTS). "
04/01/2015 - "Neurofeedback and its possible relevance for the treatment of Tourette syndrome."
07/01/2014 - "We aimed to examine the effectiveness of combined neurofeedback therapy and imagery training in adolescent patients with refractory Tourette syndrome. "
12/01/2011 - "Neurofeedback training for tourette syndrome: an uncontrolled single case study."