|1.||Warkentin, Theodore E: 13 articles (12/2015 - 09/2002)|
|2.||Aronow, Wilbert S: 6 articles (09/2010 - 02/2004)|
|3.||Frykberg, Robert G: 5 articles (02/2015 - 10/2003)|
|4.||Vogel, Todd R: 5 articles (02/2014 - 12/2009)|
|5.||Harris, Linda M: 5 articles (09/2012 - 01/2005)|
|6.||Dosluoglu, Hasan H: 4 articles (09/2012 - 11/2007)|
|7.||Dryjski, Maciej L: 4 articles (09/2012 - 11/2007)|
|8.||Kuz'min, V V: 4 articles (05/2008 - 01/2007)|
|9.||VADT Investigators: 3 articles (06/2015 - 01/2009)|
|10.||Turns, Martin: 3 articles (03/2015 - 08/2011)|
|1.||Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid)FDA LinkGeneric
05/01/2012 - "There were no statistically significant differences in the two groups in comorbities, average age, initial gangrene at presentation, aspirin or statin use, or smoking status. "
01/01/1991 - "A patient who had small cell lung cancer complicated by symmetrical peripheral gangrene, secondary to spontaneous platelet aggregation, improved dramatically after starting aspirin treatment."
01/01/1991 - "Digital gangrene in small cell lung cancer: response to aspirin treatment."
01/01/2015 - "If not treated with aspirin, ET and PV patients are at a high risk of major arterial thrombosis including stroke, myocardial infarction and digital gangrene."
08/01/2002 - "The patient was treated with aspirin and diclofenac, and improved slowly with complete resolution of gangrene and symptoms after 3 months. "
|2.||Adrenal Cortex Hormones (Corticosteroids)IBA
06/01/1967 - "[Corticosteroids and the treatment of gangrene]."
04/01/2014 - "All patients required corticosteroids while 10 patients needed additional immunosuppressives where there were uncontrolled symptoms of peripheral neuropathy or progressive gangrene despite treatment with corticosteroids. "
08/01/1962 - "[Corticosteroids in gangrene caused by poisonous cobra bites]."
04/01/1982 - "An attempt at treatment by plasmapheresis, immunodepressants and corticosteroids led to moderate stabilisation of the vasculitis (regression of purpura) but remained incapable of resolving the local problem of gangrene. "
12/01/2001 - "We speculated that SLE associated with systemic vasculitis and uremic milieu over a number of years may represent the perfect preexisting condition for calcific arteriolopathy to occur following which several factors including chronic administration of corticosteroids, photosensitivity in lupus, and significant weight loss may have contributed to acral gangrene and mesenteric ischemia."
|3.||Heparin (Liquaemin)FDA LinkGeneric
08/01/2009 - "Thrombotic cutaneous gangrene is a rare complication of heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia after cardiac surgery. "
01/01/2007 - "Outcomes included PE, recurrent DVT, gangrene, heparin complications, and death. "
01/01/2001 - "Outcomes included PE, recurrent DVT, gangrene, heparin complications, and death. "
11/01/1998 - "Subsequently, he developed gangrene of the lower limbs with no response to heparin therapy. "
08/01/1990 - "Patients who presented with imminent gangrene were promptly operated upon, whereas those who had less severe ischaemia were treated initially with heparin only. "
|4.||Alprostadil (Muse)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/1995 - "Atypical KD with peripheral gangrene appears to react favourably to treatment with PGE1, but needs careful monitoring to detect early signs of cardiac ischaemia."
01/01/1989 - "Influence of prostaglandin E1 on muscular tissue-PO2 in patients with diabetic gangrene."
01/01/1985 - "For the present time, intraarterial infusion of PGE1 is the treatment of choice for impending gangrene. "
09/10/1988 - "If reconstructive arterial surgery or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty are not possible, some patients with rest pain or gangrene may be successfully treated by intraarterial administration of prostaglandin E1."
08/01/2000 - "In a preliminary pilot study a group of 150 patients (mean age 67+/-12 years) with intermittent claudication (walking range from 0 to 500 m) and a group of 100 patients with CLI (45% with rest pain, and 55% gangrene; mean age 68 +/-11 years) the number of PGE1 cycles according to the short-term protocol (STP) needed to produce significant clinical improvement was preliminarily evaluated. "
07/01/2009 - "Corticosteroids and anticoagulants relieved the symptoms; however, deep ulcers remained after the removal of gangrene. "
05/01/2010 - "At univariate analysis, the factors associated with poorer limb salvage rates during follow-up were the presence of ischemic ulcers or gangrene (log-rank, 8.4; P = .004; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-3.5; odds ratio [OR], 2.1), the presence of only one patent tibial vessel (log-rank, 41.3; P < .001; 95% CI, 3.1-10.8, OR, 5.8), redo surgery (log-rank, 12.4; P < .001; 95% CI, 1.4-4; OR, 2.4) and the postoperative treatment with antiplatelet therapy in comparison to oral anticoagulants (log-rank, 5.1; P = .02; 95% CI, 1.0-3.4; OR, 1.8). "
05/01/2003 - "Oral anticoagulants are not administered in active HIT type II, in deep vein thrombosis with high international normalized ratio (INR) and thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and low protein C levels to avoid the possibility of venous limb gangrene development. "
02/01/2005 - "The avoidance of early transition to oral anticoagulants in patients with acute heparin-induced thrombocytopenia also has been advised because of the potential for further thrombotic complications, including venous limb gangrene and warfarin-induced skin necrosis."
10/01/2013 - "Purpura fulminans is a life-threatening hematologic emergency characterized by extensive skin necrosis with hemorrhagic infarction, hypotension and gangrene which may arise from severe sepsis; mostly gram negative sepsis though also associated with some gram positive organisms, similarly viral infections like varicella and measles have been implicated; it may also arise from congenital deficiency of the anticoagulants protein C, S, and antithrombin III; and it may also be idiopathic. "
|6.||Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)FDA LinkGeneric
09/01/2014 - "Corticosteroid pulse therapy, and plasma exchange in combination with synchronized cyclophosphamide was administered, which led to improvement of the digital gangrenes, while no new lesions developed. "
08/01/1998 - "A few months after starting a combined therapy with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids the patient showed a partial remission with a residual toe gangrene. "
10/01/2009 - "3) Fifteen gangrene patients started prednisone > or =1 mg/kg/d, and 18 were treated with cyclophosphamide, although 8 cases failed and ultimately received digital amputation. "
10/01/2002 - "After being treated with intermittent intravenous cyclophosphamide, oral corticosteroid, alprostadil and aspirin, the pleural effusion rapidly disappeared, while the digital gangrene gradually improved. "
|7.||Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin (Heparin, Low Molecular Weight)IBA
11/01/2012 - "Patient was managed with IV fluids, LMWH, FFP etc. Her general condition improved within 72 hours with no further progression of gangrene. "
05/01/1997 - "There were similar percentages of composite bypasses (IVH, 50%; LMWH, 46%), patients with tissue loss or gangrene (IVH, 56%; LMWH, 61%), and patients with prior ipsilateral bypass (IVH, 57%; LMWH, 56%) in each group. "
01/01/2007 - "The current evidence suggests that cancer patients are at increased risk from recurrent venous thrombosis and venous gangrene, and LMWH provides potential promise as a safe and effective measure in the management of such patients."
|8.||Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors (Antiplatelet Drugs)IBA
05/01/1993 - "The failure of anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents as therapy and the successful reversal of impending digital gangrene in one patient by sympathetic blockade suggest that the initial underlining pathophysiology is vasoconstrictive rather than thrombotic in nature. "
10/01/1989 - "Cooperative Study of antiplatelet agents in diabetic patients after amputation for gangrene: unobserved, sudden, and unexpected deaths."
01/01/1986 - "This paper review some of the issues faced by the investigators involved in a VA Cooperative Study on Antiplatelet Agents in Diabetic Patients after Amputation for Gangrene. "
01/01/1986 - "VA cooperative study on antiplatelet agents in diabetic patients after amputation for gangrene. "
01/01/1985 - "Cooperative Study on antiplatelet agents in diabetic patients after amputation for gangrene: III. Definitions and review of design and baseline characteristics."
|9.||Iloprost (Ventavis)FDA Link
02/01/2016 - "A patient with digital ischaemia and gangrene was treated with iloprost and antiplatelets for two weeks. "
12/01/2000 - "Iloprost treatment of finger gangrene in a patient with Raynaud's syndrome."
09/01/2000 - "In the case presented, the prostacycline analogue iloprost was used in an attempt to minimize incipient digital gangrene ina patient with evidence of protracted immunological phenomena. "
03/01/2008 - "We started a treatment with the intravenous vasodilator Iloprost, but the necroses progressed to gangrene. "
02/01/1998 - "Successful treatment of gangrene in systemic necrotizing vasculitis with iloprost."
|10.||Warfarin (Coumadin)FDA LinkGeneric
05/01/2014 - "The lesser known side-effect of warfarin: warfarin-induced venous limb gangrene."
11/01/2012 - "A lesser known adverse reaction to warfarin is warfarin-induced venous limb gangrene. "
11/01/2012 - "Warfarin-induced Venous Limb Gangrene."
01/01/2008 - "The development of limb gangrene in the historical controls may have been a result of delayed recognition of HIT and/or inappropriately early institution of warfarin in the historical controls. "
06/01/2004 - "Venous limb gangrene is a major complication associated with warfarin therapy. "
08/01/2014 - "Overall amputation-free survival was similar between patients managed with vs without thrombolysis (P = .61), but subgroup analysis of those patients without tissue loss or gangrene at the time of presentation revealed a trend toward improved amputation-free survival with use of thrombolysis, with 60-day amputation-free survival of 0.92 vs 0.75 (P = .12). "
04/01/2014 - "By measuring the value of the Td 90%, ICGA tests can estimate the presence of the arterio-venous shunting in PND, which might be helpful for assessing the progression of foot ulceration with diabetes, gangrene and the need for amputation."
12/01/1998 - "Two patients with advanced distal forefoot gangrene ultimately required below-knee amputation despite the evidence of improved perfusion. "
04/01/1942 - "IMPROVED METHODS IN EXTREMITY AMPUTATIONS FOR DIABETIC GANGRENE."
07/01/2007 - "A prospective controlled study was conducted in 48 patients with atherosclerotic gangrene in the postoperative period after above knee amputation. "
08/01/2012 - "This study sought to investigate the timing of gangrene tissue debridement and the safety of BMI in these patients. "
06/01/2015 - "Expedited delivery, timely diagnosis of gangrene, urgent, extensive debridement, and broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage contributed largely to effective management of this rare presentation in pregnancy."
08/01/2012 - "Timing of gangrene tissue debridement after autologous bone marrow cell implantation in patients with superficial femoral arterial occlusion: preliminary experiences."
12/01/2001 - "Three patients were after extensive debridement of Fournierrís gangrene. "
07/01/2000 - "The authors suggest adherence to the fundamental principles of treatment including radical surgical debridement and appropriate antibiosis for necrotizing gangrene after spinal surgery. "
08/01/1979 - "The efficacy of a new staged approach to AVR was tested against a canine ischemic limb preparation in which global ligation of ipsilateral collaterals inevitably led to limb gangrene. "
01/01/2014 - "Our case demonstrates that ligation of an injured iliac vein may induce phlegmasia cerulea dolens in a posttraumatic scenario; prompt reconstruction of the iliac vein to restore the venous drainage is an effective treatment for phlegmasia cerulea dolens with impending gangrene."
07/01/2014 - "Dry gangrene also occurred in the legs and paws of mice with ligation of the femoral artery proximal to the origin of the deep femoral artery branch. "
07/01/2014 - "In mice with ligation and transaction of the femoral artery proximal to the origin of the deep femoral artery branch, dry gangrene occurred in the whole hind-limb. "
08/01/2011 - "Immobilisation is much more important than tight ligature, which may cause gangrene. "
11/01/2013 - "Surgical venous thrombectomy for phlegmasia cerulea dolens and venous gangrene of the lower extremities."
01/01/2008 - "Surgical thrombectomy is the recommended treatment in venous gangrene. "
10/01/1993 - "One patient had advanced gangrene on presentation and one underwent emergency thrombectomy. "
11/01/1992 - "Both of the latter patients required thrombectomy; one developed gangrene, which precluded limb-sparing surgery. "
06/01/1989 - "In cases of PCD, iliofemoral thrombectomy should be considered early when the threat of venous gangrene exists. "
09/01/1985 - "The present study suggests that limb salvage is possible in as many as two thirds of limbs with established gangrene. "
09/01/1985 - "This study was undertaken to assess factors affecting limb salvage after femorodistal bypass in patients with established gangrene. "
05/01/2009 - "[Limb salvage operation for patients with diabetic gangrene]."
12/01/2006 - "Limb salvage was achieved in 35 of the 41 patients with gangrene. "
06/01/2006 - "Diabetes should not be used as a contraindication to limb salvage in patients who present with Achilles tendon ulceration or gangrene."