|2.||Wounds and Injuries (Trauma)
|3.||Soft Tissue Injuries (Soft Tissue Injury)
|4.||Multiple Trauma (Multiple Injuries)
|1.||Wenke, Joseph C: 11 articles (09/2015 - 12/2005)|
|2.||Mehta, Samir: 6 articles (01/2015 - 02/2010)|
|3.||Tornetta, Paul: 5 articles (08/2014 - 10/2002)|
|4.||Penn-Barwell, J G: 4 articles (10/2015 - 01/2012)|
|5.||Morgan, Steven J: 4 articles (10/2013 - 03/2008)|
|6.||Guelcher, Scott A: 4 articles (10/2013 - 08/2010)|
|7.||Egol, Kenneth A: 3 articles (12/2015 - 02/2012)|
|8.||Wenke, J C: 3 articles (10/2015 - 01/2012)|
|9.||Murray, Clinton K: 3 articles (09/2015 - 12/2012)|
|10.||Hak, David J: 3 articles (08/2015 - 07/2010)|
|1.||Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
03/01/2000 - "This study compared the efficacy of antibiotic impregnated beads with conventional intravenous antibiotics in the treatment of open fractures. "
10/01/2013 - "Prophylactic antibiotics in open fractures: a pilot randomized clinical safety study."
03/01/2013 - "This study had 3 major aims: (1) to ascertain the degree to which helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) administration of antibiotics (Abx) can streamline the time to Abx in open fracture patients, (2) to determine whether any clinical outcome improvements were associated with HEMS Abx therapy, and (3) to calculate the cost-effectiveness of prehospital HEMS Abx. "
08/01/2011 - "Until well-designed randomized trials are conducted, we recommend that providers consider selecting antibiotics active against MRSA for open fracture prophylaxis based on the local prevalence of MRSA carriage and individualized risk factors."
08/01/2006 - "All published clinical trials claiming to evaluate, or cited elsewhere as being authoritative regarding, the role of antibiotics in open fracture management were identified and then evaluated according to published guidelines for evidence-based medicine. "
|2.||Gentamicins (Gentamicin)FDA LinkGeneric
09/01/1999 - "Once daily, high dose versus divided, low dose gentamicin for open fractures."
02/01/1995 - "The first-dose pharmacokinetics of gentamicin 6 mg/kg resulted in a proportional rise in Cmax, Cpk, and AUC0-infinity compared with gentamicin 2 mg/kg in patients with open fractures, but with greater variability."
09/01/1999 - "Thus, daily dosing of gentamicin was found to be safe, effective, and cost efficient in the treatment of open fractures when combined with a cephalosporin and aggressive operative debridement and stabilization."
02/01/1995 - "Pharmacokinetics of once-daily dosing of gentamicin in surgical intensive care unit patients with open fractures."
09/01/2010 - "Our results suggest that gentamicin applied to a biodegradable scaffold is effective at decreasing radiographically defined osteomyelitis in an infected open fracture."
|3.||Cefazolin (Ancef)FDA LinkGeneric
03/01/1997 - "The results of this study suggest that local antibiotic therapy with biodegradable, controlled release cefazolin microspheres may be useful for the management of open fractures in humans, even when treatment is delayed for several hours after bacterial contamination."
04/01/2011 - "Comparison the Efficacy of Cefazolin plus Gentamicin with Cefazolin plus Ciprofloxacin in Management of Type -IIIA Open Fractures."
10/01/1990 - "Seventy open fractures (17.3%) received systemic antibiotic prophylaxis (cefazolin, tobramycin, and penicillin) without supplemental use of the antibiotic beads. "
10/01/1990 - "Three hundred thirty-four of the open fractures (82.7%) were managed with antibiotic-impregnated bead chains (tobramycin) and systemic antibiotic prophylaxis (cefazolin, tobramycin, and penicillin). "
04/01/2011 - "Cefazolin plus gentamicin, or cefazolin plus ciprofloxacin both can be successfully used for prevention of infection in type IIIA open fractures."
|4.||Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)FDA LinkGeneric
11/01/2000 - "However, there appeared to be a high failure rate for the ciprofloxacin Type III open fracture group, with patients being 5.33 times more likely to become infected than those in the combination therapy group. "
11/01/2000 - "Single-agent antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin is effective in treatment of Type I and Type II open fracture wounds. "
11/01/2000 - "Prospective, randomized, double-blind study comparing single-agent antibiotic therapy, ciprofloxacin, to combination antibiotic therapy in open fracture wounds."
04/01/2011 - "Comparison the Efficacy of Cefazolin plus Gentamicin with Cefazolin plus Ciprofloxacin in Management of Type -IIIA Open Fractures."
11/01/2000 - "The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a single agent, ciprofloxacin, with that of combination antibiotic therapy consisting of cefamandole and gentamicin in all types of open fracture wounds. "
09/01/2015 - "The standards for the management of open fractures of the lower limb published by the British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic surgeons (BAPRAS) and British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) were introduced to improve the treatment received by patients after open injury to the lower limb. "
12/01/2014 - "The majority of these patients were identified as requiring plastic surgical intervention for open fractures (69%) or were polytrauma patients (43%). "
01/01/2014 - "Clear guidelines are set by the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) and British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons (BAPRAS) on the preoperative management of open fractures. "
06/01/2012 - "Open fractures of the tibia pose a challenge to orthopaedic and plastic surgeons. "
02/01/2009 - "Open fractures were jointly managed under the care of local plastic and orthopaedic surgeons using a policy of obtaining early soft tissue cover. "
|6.||Polymethyl Methacrylate (Sol)IBA
09/01/2015 - "aureus and evaluating incorporation of these drugs into PMMA for treatment of contaminated open fractures. "
06/01/1991 - "Supplemental use of local antibiotic polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) beads appears to further diminish the morbidity in high-grade open fractures."
06/01/2014 - "Local antibiotic delivery by a bioabsorbable gel is superior to PMMA bead depot in reducing infection in an open fracture model."
06/01/2003 - "To assess the use of antibiotic-loaded polymethyl methacrylate beads in the management of chronic osteomyelitis of different aetiologies: infected osteosynthesis, infected open fractures, and haematogenous osteomyelitis. "
08/01/2015 - "Antibiotic-laden PMMA bead chains are a valuable method of local antibiotic treatment in the prevention of infection in open fractures. "
|7.||Tobramycin (Nebcin)FDA LinkGeneric
07/01/2014 - "Tobramycin powder was added to the graft in all open fractures. "
10/01/1993 - "One hundred fifty-seven open fractures (22%) (Group A) received systemic antibiotic prophylaxis only, whereas 547 compound fractures (78%) (Group B) were treated with local application of antibiotic beads (tobramycin) in addition to prophylaxis. "
01/01/1992 - "96 open fractures were managed with the supplemental local use of tobramycin-PMMA-beads. "
12/01/1988 - "After operative debridement, 70 patients with compound fractures were treated prophylactically with tobramycin-impregnated PMMA beads. "
12/01/1988 - "Wound and serum levels of tobramycin with the prophylactic use of tobramycin-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in compound fractures."
11/01/1994 - "The courage to co-operate: the team approach to open fractures of the lower limb."
08/01/2015 - "Age, gender, co-morbid medical condition, delay in presentation, and grade of open fracture were not found to be predictors of postoperative infection. "
04/01/2014 - "Precise identification of bacteria associated with post-injury infection, co-morbidities, and outcomes could have a tremendous impact in the management and treatment of open fractures. "
02/01/2010 - "Bilateral, multiple or segmental injuries, open fractures or those with FASS score higher than 3 were included in severe foot injury group and compared with simple foot injury group regarding patients' demography, co-morbidities, trauma mechanism and energy, incident location, number of associated injuries, Injury Severity Score (ISS) and hospital stay using a univariate analysis. "
05/01/1993 - "The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of local antibiotic therapy with biodegradable poly-(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) cefazolin-loaded microspheres for the prevention of infection in experimental open fractures stabilized with internal fixation. "
|9.||Interleukin-12 (IL 12)IBA
01/01/2010 - "The purpose of this project was to study the effect of Interleukin-12 (IL-12) systemic therapy on a previously established open fracture model. "
02/01/2012 - "We also determined the efficacy of the combination therapy of IL-12 and conventional antibiotic therapy in the prophylaxis of open fracture-associated infections. "
11/01/2011 - "IL-12 nanocoating is a promising prophylactic means to modulate the host immune response to help prevent open fracture-associated infections and to avoid the problem of antibiotic resistance."
11/01/2011 - "Exogenous interleukin-12 p70 (IL-12p70 or IL-12), a natural cytokine that plays a central role in Th1 response and bridges innate and adaptive immunities, will reduce open fracture-associated infection. "
11/01/2011 - "Emerging ideas: Interleukin-12 nanocoatings prevent open fracture-associated infections."
01/01/2005 - "Bio-artificial periosteum for severe open fracture--an experimental study of osteogenic cell/collagen sponge composite as a bio-artificial periosteum."
01/01/2005 - "In an attempt to reduce complications in cases of severe open fracture, we developed a bio-artificial periosteum composed of osteogenic cells and collagen sponge. "
11/01/2002 - "Collagen sheets as temporary wound cover in major open fractures before definitive flap cover."
01/01/2011 - "Local antibiotic-impregnated collagen sponges along with systemic antibiotics for 3 to 5 days offer promising results in open fracture management."
01/01/2011 - "To assess the outcome of immediate plate osteosynthesis via application of antibiotic impregnated collagen fleeces (gentamicin-collagen and antibiotic sponge) which gradually release antibiotic locally in the surgical treatment of open fractures presented to us 6 hours after injury. "
|1.||Intramedullary Fracture Fixation
11/01/2012 - "Although closed reduction and intramedullary nailing remains the treatment of choice for most significantly displaced tibial shaft fractures, open reduction with respectful handling of the soft tissue envelope can be safe and effective and should be considered when less invasive techniques are unsuccessful."
01/01/2009 - "The efficacy of flexible intramedullary nailing for open fractures needs further evaluation. "
10/01/2008 - "The study group comprised 28 patients who underwent surgical treatment of open fractures of the tibial shaft with locked intramedullary nailing. "
02/01/2015 - "The role of intramedullary nailing in treatment of open fractures."
06/01/2013 - "To evaluate the results of the intramedullary nailing in the open fractures of the tibia, especially in the Indian scenario. "
08/01/2005 - "Early meticulous debridement, good open reduction and internal fixation with a small DCP proved very effective in the management of type I and II open fractures of both the radial and ulnar diaphyses."
12/01/2013 - "The management of ballistic fractures, which are open fractures, has often been studied in wartime and has benefited from the principles of military surgery with debridement and lavage, and the use of external fixation for bone stabilization. "
11/01/2014 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate the additional cost associated with performing after-hours operative debridement of open fractures within 6 hours of injury. "
03/01/2014 - "We searched several databases from 1946 to 2013 for any observational or experimental studies that evaluated late and early surgical debridement of pediatric open fractures. "
11/01/2015 - "NPWT is useful treatment option for open fractures, to bridge between initial debridement and final microsurgical tissue transfer. "
12/01/2013 - "Thus, the 'external fixator' application for the management of open fractures of tibia may give good results even to the poor patients and may be suitable for underdeveloped and developing countries. "
04/01/2006 - "The introduction of external fixation devices has brought significant improvement in the management of complex open fractures. "
08/01/2008 - "The method of pedicle flap transfer combined with external fixator is safe and effective for the leg open fracture with soft tissue defect."
11/01/2013 - "[Comparison study on locking compress plate external fixator and standard external fixator for treatment of tibial open fractures]."
06/01/2013 - "The present study is aimed to understand the meaning of living with an external fixation device for grade III open fractures of the lower limbs from the perspective of the patient. "
08/01/2003 - "Itinerant traditional surgeons work throughout sub-Saharan Africa and perform many procedures including: tooth extraction, abortion, injections, incising and draining abscesses, uvulectomy, circumcision, inguinal hernia surgery, non-invasive cataract luxation, and surgery on closed and open fractures. "
09/01/1989 - "The techniques involving the intraosteal injections of dioxidin-heparin solutions, ultrasound treatment, oral mucosa wound hermetization with ziakrin paste were substantiated and described as the cure for patients with open fractures of lower jaws. "
11/18/2015 - "The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of local wound cavity injections of aqueous aminoglycosides (gentamicin and tobramycin), in conjunction with systemic antibiotics, to lower the prevalence of infection in patients with open fractures. "
02/01/2010 - "Despite improved union and limb salvage rates, the prognosis for severe type III open fracture of the tibial shaft remains guarded, and outcomes are often determined by patient psychosocial variables."
08/01/2014 - "While the orthopaedic management of open fractures has been well-documented in developed settings, limited evidence exists on the surgical outcomes of open fractures in terms of limb salvage in low- and middle-income countries. "
07/01/2005 - "Severe open fracture of the tibia associated with massive soft tissue loss: limb salvage revisited."
06/01/1995 - "In the case of an open fracture of the tibia associated with vascular compromise distal to the popliteal artery trifurcation, limb salvage is rarely indicated. "
10/01/1989 - "The mechanism of injury, ISS, sequence of orthopedic and vascular procedures, use of temporary arterial shunts, the nature of the arterial reconstruction, length of ischemic time, and the presence of open fractures did not affect limb salvage or outcome. "