|2.||Rosacea (Acne Rosacea)
|3.||Carcinoid Tumor (Carcinoid)
|1.||Lai, Eseng: 14 articles (08/2012 - 04/2006)|
|2.||Waters, M Gerard: 11 articles (01/2013 - 04/2006)|
|3.||Paolini, John F: 11 articles (08/2012 - 07/2007)|
|4.||Maccubbin, Darbie: 8 articles (07/2013 - 11/2008)|
|5.||Wagner, John A: 8 articles (08/2012 - 10/2008)|
|6.||Cheng, Kang: 8 articles (08/2012 - 04/2006)|
|7.||Kashyap, Moti L: 8 articles (06/2011 - 12/2002)|
|8.||Carballo-Jane, Ester: 7 articles (01/2013 - 12/2007)|
|9.||Bays, Harold E: 7 articles (09/2012 - 03/2003)|
|10.||Vardenafil Study Group: 7 articles (11/2006 - 07/2004)|
|1.||Niacin (Nicotinic Acid)FDA LinkGeneric
09/01/2002 - "Niacin ER has a delivery system allowing absorption rates intermediate to that of niacin IR and SR. As a result, niacin ER achieves the efficacy of niacin IR with a reduced incidence of flushing and without the hepatic effects seen with niacin SR. The pharmacist should be familiar with the differences among and the advantages and disadvantages of each formulation to educate patients and help them achieve the optimal therapeutic benefit of niacin while minimizing adverse effects."
12/13/2007 - "Compound 2i exhibited good in vivo antilipolytic efficacy while providing a significantly improved therapeutic index over vasodilation (flushing) with respect to niacin in the mouse model."
01/12/2012 - "Compound 33 had no overt signs of flushing at doses up to 10 mg/kg with an improved therapeutic window to flushing as compared to nicotinic acid. "
01/01/2011 - "Niacin is particularly effective in achieving normalization of HDL-C but is clinically underutilized due to the side effect of cutaneous flushing. "
08/01/2010 - "These data will help to guide new efficient approaches to mitigate nicotinic acid-induced flushing and may help to exploit the potential antipsoriatic effects of GPR109A agonists in the skin."
|2.||Heparin (Liquaemin)FDA LinkGeneric
11/01/2015 - "Specific areas of practice that warrant further investigation include questions about the efficacy of heparin for central device flushing, increasing adherence to the recommended 10mL diameter syringe use, increased use of prefilled flush syringes, identifying and standardising optimal volumes and frequency of flushing, and improving documentation of flush orders and administration."
12/01/2015 - "This study failed to demonstrate that normal saline flushing is not inferior to heparin flushing, even if a significant difference between the two treatments was not found. "
01/01/2014 - "As heparin is more expensive than normal saline, our findings challenge its continued use in CVC flushing outside the context of clinical trials."
12/01/2015 - "Our aim was to determine the non-inferiority of normal saline flushing compared to heparin flushing in maintaining the patency of totally implanted venous access devices (TIVADs). "
11/01/2015 - "Some concentration of heparin saline was used by 25% of those flushing central devices. "
|3.||Octreotide (Sandostatin)FDA LinkGeneric
08/01/1995 - "The relation between octreotide dose and efficacy in decreasing urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels, flushing and diarrhoea was analysed for seven dose ranges by pooling data from selected articles. "
03/01/1995 - "Octreotide lowered diarrhoea and flushing frequency significantly compared to placebo. "
04/01/1989 - "Administration of octreotide (50 micrograms, twice daily, sc) caused a 26% decrease in urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetia acid excretion, but the number of flushing attacks or bowel movements did not change significantly. "
03/22/1992 - "Octreotide in a dose of 100 micrograms three times daily by subcutaneous injection provided effective and rapid relief from episodic flushing and serious diarrhoea. "
12/01/1988 - "Flushing in carcinoid patients responds uniformly to octreotide (Sandostatin), but only one third of the patients with IF are relieved of the symptom. "
04/25/2006 - "A clinical study in healthy men and women demonstrated that treatment with MK-0524 reduced the symptoms of flushing and the increase in skin perfusion after the administration of NA. "
09/15/2012 - "Laropiprant (LRPT) reduces NIF; however, its effects on chronic flushing (>6 months) have not been studied. "
01/01/2012 - "Now an agent laropiprant (LRP) has been developed, which blocks the flushing pathway. "
06/01/2011 - "Laropiprant, when combined with ERN, significantly reduces the incidence of flushing. "
01/01/2010 - "Laropiprant, a selective prostaglandin-2 receptor inhibitor, specifically targets the cascade of events causing the flushing. "
|5.||Sodium Chloride (Saline Solution)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2015 - "The efficacy of the disinfection at 30 sec. exposure time was controlled by taking a swab sample and by flushing the NFC with sterile 0.9% sodium chloride solution. "
11/01/2012 - "Preservative-free 0.9% sodium chloride for flushing and locking peripheral intravenous access device: a prospective controlled trial."
12/01/2015 - "Cells were harvested by flushing the filter with either HES or physiological saline solution (SALINE). "
11/01/2015 - "Most nurses reported using sodium chloride 0.9% for flushing both peripheral (96%, 987/1028) and central devices (75%, 423/566). "
08/01/2015 - "The patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups: the NS group received preservative-free 0.9% sodium chloride as the flushing and locking solution, while the HS group received HS (50 U/mL). "
|6.||Somatostatin (Somatotropin Release-Inhibiting Factor)IBA
04/01/1990 - "Psychiatric evaluations were completed on four patients who were treated for "idiopathic flushing" with a long-acting analogue of somatostatin. "
01/01/2006 - "Systemic chemotherapy had little effect, although Somatostatin was used effectively to relieve symptoms caused by the disseminated disease (flushing and diarrhoea). "
06/01/2009 - "Following a history of cutaneous flushing, diarrhea, and bronchoconstriction 3 years later, a somatostatin therapy was instituted. "
06/01/1998 - "First, long-term treatment with somatostatin analogues controls hormonal hypersecretion, which controls flushing attacks, watery diarrhoea, hypoglycaemia and electrolyte disorders in patients with carcinoids and islet cell tumours. "
08/01/1996 - "Somatostatin analogues effectively control flushing and diarrhoea in patients with the carcinoid syndrome. "
01/01/2014 - "In previous studies, nitrogen (N2) gas flushing treatments of raw and pasteurized milk at cold chain-temperatures inhibited bacterial spoilage and highlighted different susceptibilities to the N2 treatment with the exclusion of certain bacterial types. "
01/01/2010 - "The study shows that the installation of a 3 kL tank reduces hydraulic loading by 75%, Total Suspended Solids by 97%, Total Phosphorous by 90% and Total Nitrogen by 81% if the rainwater stored in the tank is used to meet the indoor demand (toilet flushing and laundry use) as well as the outdoor demand (garden watering)."
09/01/1992 - "Physiological studies were performed under microaerophilic conditions (nitrogen flushing) in continuous cultures for a wide range of growth rates (0.03 to 0.5 h-1). "
06/01/2015 - "The three most common ways were applied: flushing with nitrogen (N2) gas, flushing with a mixture of N2 and CO2 (80/20 v/v), and no flushing. "
03/25/2015 - "After the extraction and nitrogen flushing, the extracts were rapidly derivatized with 2-(12,13-dihydro-7H-dibenzo[a,g]carbazol-7-yl)ethyl4-methylbenzenesulfonate. "
02/01/2012 - "Hormone therapy (HT) is the most effective treatment of postmenopausal (PMP) flushing; however, its use is often contraindicated. "
02/06/2002 - "Women with flushing who were assigned to hormone therapy had improved mental health (+2.6 vs - 0.5; P =.04) and fewer depressive symptoms (-0.5 vs + 0.007; P =.01) over follow-up compared with those assigned to placebo. "
07/01/2015 - "The pattern of FCM excretion indicated the existence of a funneling effect as predicted by the allostatic theory of stress: initial stress hormone concentrations showed a wide inter-individual variation, which decreased during experimental flushing. "
12/01/2012 - "Under current market conditions, using hormone or flushing can be profitable for Markhoz goats farmers."
07/01/2006 - "Nutritional flushing also alters the blood concentrations of some reproductive hormones. "
|9.||Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
01/01/2013 - "To monitor the carry-over of antibiotics in the Netherlands, 21 feed mills were visited and 140 samples of flushing feeds were collected and analysed for containing residues of antibiotics. "
10/01/2006 - "We developed a non-surgical uterine lavage technique, which allowed repeated flushing of the uterine lumen and installation of therapeutic antibiotics. "
11/01/2005 - "A public awareness campaign was initiated by the author to encourage proper use and disposal of antibiotics, as flushing them is a common practice in the United States."
05/15/1988 - "Treatment included extraction of the tusk, using rotational and extractional forces, and administration of antibiotics, followed by 1 year of flushing the opened tusk cavity with warm tap water. "
01/01/1987 - "Twice as much antibiotics were administered for 24 to 28 hours in emergency cases in which preoperative intestinal flushing was not possible. "
|10.||Furosemide (Lasix)FDA LinkGeneric
12/01/1981 - "It is concluded from this and similar studies that furosemide is only beneficial in models of acute renal failure with an obstructive or nephrotoxic pathogenesis, in which it acts by flushing out the noxious material and not by inhibiting the mechanism of tubuloglomerular feedback."
05/01/1977 - "The immediate function of the kidneys stored under hypothermia could not be improved by the addition of furosemide to the flushing solution. "
10/01/1975 - "Provided the warm time was less than 60 min and the cold time less than 12 hours, intraarterial flushing with a crystalloid or colloid solution combined with pre-treatment of the donor and postoperative fluid load/frusemide drive to the recipient gave the best results."
01/01/2014 - "Furosemide was administered after clamping and flushing the main route according to the supplier's information that indicated the compatibility of dopamine and aminophylline. "
04/01/1997 - "Occlusions were the most common catheter complications, and the majority of them (79% intraperitoneal and 84% intravenous) were cleared by flushing the catheter. "
01/01/1987 - "Study of these patients, and of four additional patients prospectively selected for study, demonstrated that three of five patients had higher peak and/or trough aminoglycoside serum concentrations--when blood was obtained from the central venous catheter--than were contained in simultaneous samples from peripheral blood; these divergent results were noted after the catheter had been in use for more than 1 week; divergent results were not improved by additional catheter flushing prior to central venous blood sampling. "
05/01/2011 - "For biliary cytology, sampling by catheter aspiration is more effective than catheter flushing or sampling from a drainage bag. "
04/01/2012 - "Our study shows that intermittent cannula flushing is associated with improved cannula patency for peripherally inserted venous catheters in newborns."
02/01/2013 - "We next tested the efficacy of saline flushing using less invasive balloon catheter-guided injection. "
04/01/1992 - "In order to reduce the operative injury of the endothelium in free reversed vein grafts, cultured human endothelial cells were used to test the optimal concentration of the constituents of a flushing solution for improved protection of the endothelium. "
06/01/1994 - "Further flushing with 500 milliliters of autologous portal blood resulted in smaller intraoperative shifts in serum K+, greater hemodynamic stability, better graft function and improved graft and patient survival."
07/01/1996 - "The goal of this study was to determine a safe yet effective pressure for intravascular graft flushing and to evaluate the consequences of higher pressures. "
01/01/1980 - "This study from 1 center is a comparison of 40 primary cadaver kidney grafts preserved with Collins' C2 flushing followed by simple cold storage to 37 primary cadaver kidney grafts preserved with cryoprecipitated plasma on the MOX-100 machine. "
08/01/2012 - "Pigs received no immunosuppression and were sacrificed on postoperative d (POD) 8. Intestinal specimens were obtained from the animal immediately before cold flushing (T0), 2 h after graft reperfusion (T1), and at sacrifice (T2). "
|3.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
03/01/2015 - "The majority of the chemotherapy agents in use today cause various infusion reactions, from mild flushing to life-threatening events. "
01/01/2010 - "Little is known about proper interval periods between the flushings of totally implantable access ports after completion of chemotherapy. "
01/01/2008 - "There are three major problems associated with drug therapy within the oral cavity: rapid elimination of drugs due to the flushing action of saliva or the ingestion of food, the non-uniform distribution of drugs within saliva on release from a solid or semisolid delivery system and patient compliance in terms of taste. "
09/01/1995 - "The peritoneal metastatic rate of the group with peritoneal flushing plus chemotherapy (18.7% and 20.6%) was much longer than that of the group without peritoneal flushing and/or chemotherapy (31.9%). "
11/01/1984 - "A total of 401 entries have been made for paracentesis, chemotherapy administration, antibiotic administration, peritoneal lavage for cytology, and catheter flushing. "
|4.||Transplantation (Transplant Recipients)
04/01/2015 - "Thereafter, the cold dissection technique of in situ flushing and hilar dissection after perfusion has been preferred in many transplantation centers for rapid procurement of multiple organs. "
01/01/2013 - "The only pro-inflammatory cytokine detected in the murine peritoneal flushing was TNF-α with levels peaking at day 7 post transplantation. "
01/01/2012 - "To compare the benefits and harms of different methods of flushing and reperfusion during liver implantation in the transplant recipients. "
01/01/2009 - "Large endothelial areas (mostly >75% of total surface) were detached already during brief non-pulsatile flushing just before the transplantation. "
11/01/1998 - "Parathyroid-thyroid transplantation without flushing or perfusion."
|5.||Lithotripsy (Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy)
05/01/1992 - "Fragments remaining after lithotripsy were cleared at the same sitting by using saline flushing or endoscopic or percutaneous basket extraction. "
10/01/2009 - "Preventive measures for the creation of residual fragments include a carefully selected access giving exposure to the bulk of the stone, the creation of multiple tracts, the use of single pulse pneumatic lithotripsy, the prevention of stone migration with ureteral balloons or stone cones, and careful flushing of the stones from the collecting system. "
11/01/1992 - "Using intraoperative choledochoscopic electrohydraulic lithotripsy the stone was fragmented and successfully removed with a basket and normal saline flushing. "
03/01/1992 - "Selective flushing (Seldinger technique) in the management of gravel retained in a calix following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy."
09/01/1989 - "The adjunctive techniques in PTCSL included balloon dilatation for the biliary stricture, electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) for crushing large impacted stones, and flushing techniques, biliary spoons, and basket catheters for stone fragmentation and grasping. "