|1.||Congenital Abnormalities (Deformity)
|2.||Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction
|5.||Muscle Spasticity (Spastic)
|1.||Deland, Jonathan T: 8 articles (07/2015 - 12/2008)|
|2.||Catanzariti, Alan R: 6 articles (07/2014 - 01/2005)|
|3.||Mendicino, Robert W: 5 articles (07/2014 - 01/2005)|
|4.||Lui, Tun Hing: 4 articles (08/2015 - 08/2006)|
|5.||Saeedi, Hassan: 4 articles (06/2015 - 06/2013)|
|6.||Ellis, Scott J: 4 articles (02/2013 - 12/2009)|
|7.||Demetracopoulos, Constantine A: 3 articles (07/2015 - 11/2014)|
|8.||Mackintosh, Shylie: 3 articles (06/2015 - 01/2014)|
|9.||Thewlis, Dominic: 3 articles (06/2015 - 01/2014)|
|10.||Banwell, Helen A: 3 articles (06/2015 - 01/2014)|
|1.||Congenital Talipes EquinovarusIBA
10/01/2005 - "Included are club foot, flexible flatfoot, vertical talus, pes adductus, equinus, cavus foot and talipes calcaneovalgus. "
12/01/1974 - "[Cavalier's operation and transposition of the tibialis anterior muscle in flat feet and talipes valgum]."
05/01/1970 - "New concepts in the corrective surgery of congenital talipes equinovarus and congenital and neurologic flatfeet."
03/01/1961 - "[Grice's operation in paralytic talipes valgus flatfoot]."
10/01/1952 - "Congenital bilateral angulation of both bones of the leg with pes planus and plantarly flexed talus, simulating congenital talipes calcaneovalgus."
|3.||congenital Vertical talusIBA
01/01/2010 - "Congenital vertical talus, also known as congenital convex pes valgus, is an uncommon disorder of the foot, manifested as a rigid rocker-bottom flatfoot. "
01/01/2009 - "Congenital vertical talus is a rare condition but a well-known cause of severe rigid flatfoot in children. "
07/01/1982 - "However, one sees other types of flatfeet such as congenital vertical talus and tarsal coalition that frequently require surgical intervention. "
06/01/2013 - "Congenital vertical talus should not be confused with other deformities of the foot, such as congenital oblique talus, flexible flat feet or pes calcaneus. "
01/01/2010 - "Known causes for this condition are well documented and consist of congenital vertical talus, tarsal coalitions, and peroneal spastic flatfoot without coalition. "
|4.||Keratosis palmoplantaris with periodontopathia and onychogryposisIBA
05/01/2010 - "The additional findings of Haim Munk Syndrome include onychogryphosis, arachnodactyly, acral osteolysis and pes planus. "
07/01/2010 - "Haim-Munk syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder of keratinization characterized clinically by palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, severe early onset periodontitis, onychogryphosis, pes planus, arachnodactyly, and acro-osteolysis. "
07/01/2010 - "Haim-Munk syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, aggressive periodontitis with severe alveolar bone destruction, onychogryphosis, pes planus, arachnodactyly, and acro-osteolysis. "
02/01/2008 - "Haim-Munk syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder of keratinization characterized clinically by palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, severe early onset periodontitis, onychogryphosis, pes planus, arachnodactyly, and acro-osteolysis. "
|5.||Accessory navicular boneIBA
10/01/2014 - "For the painful accessory navicular bone of type II in adults, if the patient has a large navicular bone and not complicated with rigid flatfoot, once the conservative treatment fails, fusion of the primary and accessory naviculars may be a successful intervention. "
12/01/2010 - "In cases of adult acquired flatfoot associated with peritalar destabilisation, special reference is made to the plantar calcaneo-navicular (spring) ligament's degenerative disease (degenerative glenopathy) and to the presence of the accessory navicular bone as a possible pathogenic cause. "
12/01/1999 - "Tibialis posterior tendon abnormalities in feet with accessory navicular bone and flatfoot."
12/01/1999 - "These findings suggest that patients with the accessory navicular bone and flatfoot should be examined by MRI for insertion abnormalities of the TPT."
03/01/2015 - "97 children between five and 18years old were assessed by a physiotherapist; each foot was classified into one of four categories: asymptomatic neutral (n=88), asymptomatic mild flatfoot (n=47), asymptomatic flatfoot (n=29), or symptomatic flatfoot (n=30). "
12/01/2009 - "A third group of patients without flatfoot served as control (n = 30). "
06/01/2015 - "Ninety-seven healthy adults, aged 18-47 were classified as either normal (n=37), pes cavus (n=30) or pes planus (n=30) based on normative data for the Foot Posture Index, Arch Index and normalised navicular height. "
05/01/1988 - "The authors describe use of a Silastic plug to limit subtalar joint motion in symptomatic pediatric flatfeet. "
01/01/1982 - "Silastic sphere arthroereisis for surgical treatment of flexible flatfoot: a preliminary report."
03/01/1990 - "The surgical implantation of a Silastic wedge into the lateral subtalar joint (subtalar arthrosis) is designed to restrict the osseous malalignment associated with a flexible or neurogenic flatfoot deformity. "
02/01/2013 - "Correction of hindfoot valgus alignment obtained in flatfoot reconstruction is primarily determined by the MCO procedure and can be modeled linearly. "
07/01/2011 - "Ligament stiffnesses were modified to reflect stage II flatfoot damage, followed by integration of corrective osteotomies-medializing calcaneal osteotomy (MCO) and Evans and calcaneocuboid distraction arthrodesis (CCDA)--to treat flatfoot. "
02/01/2013 - "Successful correction of hindfoot alignment in adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) is likely influenced by the degree of medializing calcaneal osteotomy (MCO) performed, but it is not known if other reconstruction procedures significantly contribute as well. "
08/01/2015 - "A cohort of adult acquired flatfoot deformity rigid-body models was developed to investigate the effects of isolated tendon transfer with successive levels of medializing calcaneal osteotomy (MCO). "
|9.||Type A Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum A Toxin)FDA Link
11/01/2010 - "These results suggest that children with less severe functional deficit, fair to good selective motor control in the ankle, and mild equinus gait respond best to focal botulinum toxin type A treatment, with an eye to flatfoot or heel strike contact. "
07/01/2015 - "Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection Combined With Cast Immobilization for Treating Recurrent Peroneal Spastic Flatfoot Without Bone Coalitions: A Case Report and Review of the Literature."
07/01/1989 - "One hundred and twenty-nine children who had been referred by pediatricians, and for whom the radiographic findings met the criteria for flatfoot, were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Group I, controls; Group II, treatment with corrective orthopaedic shoes; Group III, treatment with a Helfet heel-cup; or Group IV, treatment with a custom-molded plastic insert. "
01/01/1991 - "We compared the results of these tests before and after changing the right plantar arch by placing some plastic on the medial right margin of the homolateral plantar arch (talipes valgus) or on the whole plantar arch (flat foot). "
10/01/2007 - "In a supple stage II flatfoot, naviculocuneiform arthrodesis with appropriate ancillary soft tissue augmentation and other adjunctive osseous procedures has proven effective with reproducible success. "
06/01/2009 - "Talonavicular joint arthrodesis is a reliable technique that provides both functionally and cosmetically good results with a low rate of complications in the treatment of severe pes planus valgus in older children and adolescents with CP. "
12/01/2002 - "In rheumatoid flatfoot, arthrodesis of the hindfoot with lengthening of the lateral column and reorientation of joint congruency represent the gold standard of treatment. "
12/01/2000 - "Calcaneocuboid alignment compared with flatfoot improved after calcaneocuboid distraction arthrodesis in adduction, plantar flexion, and eversion, but compared with an intact foot was overcorrected in all three planes of motion. "
09/01/2005 - "The purpose of this study was to determine the overall first tarsometatarsal joint (TMTJ) union rate in patients after they had a modified Lapidus procedure or a TMTJ arthrodesis as part of a flatfoot reconstruction. "
|2.||Orthotic Devices (Orthosis)
06/01/2014 - "The findings indicated a significant improvement in symmetry of steps and walking speed with the functional foot orthosis in comparison to the medical shoe in flat foot children. "
04/01/2014 - "The modified foot orthosis improved the foot alignment and decreased the symptoms of flat foot with more comfort. "
01/01/2014 - "Well-designed randomised controlled trials that include appropriate sample sizes, clinical cohorts and involve a measure of symptom change are required to determine the efficacy of foot orthoses to manage adult flexible pes planus."
08/01/1996 - "These data are contrary to current hypotheses about use of orthotic devices, and further studies would be helpful to reproduce these findings and to determine whether these changes are related to clinical improvement in symptomatic pes planus."
10/01/2014 - "[Conclusions] College students with flat feet saw an improvement in elements of their gait while using the foot orthosis. "
06/01/2015 - "The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of a lateral column lengthening osteotomy on hindfoot valgus in a simulated flatfoot model. "
02/01/2015 - "The indications for a calcaneal osteotomy are unclear in the literature because most of the published studies supporting their use are confounded by concurrent procedures such as in adult-acquired flatfoot correction or cavovarus reconstruction. "
12/01/2012 - "The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic outcome of the calcaneo-cuboid-cuneiform osteotomies (triple C) and the calcaneal-lengthening osteotomy in the treatment of children with symptomatic flexible flatfoot. "
05/01/2007 - "Biomechanical models have been used to study the plantar aponeurosis, medial arch height, subtalar motion, medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy, subtalar arthroereisis and the distribution of forces in the normal and flat foot. "
01/01/2007 - "Lateral column calcaneal lengthening, flexor digitorum longus transfer, and opening wedge medial cuneiform osteotomy for flexible flatfoot: a biomechanical study."
03/01/2014 - "Tendon transfers in the treatment of the adult flatfoot."
11/01/2012 - "It was concluded that indications for MDCO with FDL tendon transfer in cases of adult-acquired flatfoot are a preoperative LTMT angle of <25° and hindfoot coronal alignment (TBC angle) of <15°."
06/01/2012 - "Tendon transfer options in managing the adult flexible flatfoot."
04/01/1998 - "Although the authors do not advocate clinical use, the deltoid ligament reconstruction was more effective than flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer in restoring arch alignment in flatfoot."
11/01/2012 - "The results of medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy (MDCO) with flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon transfer were reviewed, as well as postoperative radiographic changes, to determine quantitative x-ray-based indications for MDCO with FDL tendon transfer in cases of adult-acquired flatfoot. "
09/01/2003 - "Nonoperative treatment of adult acquired flat foot with the Arizona brace."
06/01/2007 - "Understanding of the adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) continues to grow, as does the sophistication of orthotics and braces used to treat this disorder. "
09/01/2003 - "At this time, the Arizona AFO brace can be a useful weapon in the orthopedist's armamentarium for treating acquired flat foot deformity."
08/01/2002 - "This study quantified and compared the efficacy of in-shoe orthoses and ankle braces in stabilizing the hindfoot and medial longitudinal arch in a cadaveric model of acquired flexible flatfoot deformity. "