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Feminization

Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.
Also Known As:
Feminizations
Networked: 415 relevant articles (5 outcomes, 20 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Residual Neoplasm
2. Virilism (Virilization)
3. Hyperplasia
4. Lordosis
5. Uterine Neoplasms (Uterine Cancer)

Experts

1. Tyler, Charles R: 7 articles (03/2011 - 12/2002)
2. Kloas, Werner: 6 articles (05/2015 - 12/2002)
3. Li, Zhengyan: 6 articles (06/2014 - 10/2007)
4. Jobling, Susan: 5 articles (07/2013 - 04/2006)
5. Lutz, Ilka: 5 articles (04/2009 - 12/2002)
6. Gibson, Mark: 4 articles (06/2014 - 09/2012)
7. Kestemont, Patrick: 3 articles (01/2015 - 04/2011)
8. Gao, Huiwang: 3 articles (06/2014 - 10/2007)
9. Lilienthal, Hellmuth: 3 articles (09/2013 - 01/2002)
10. Iguchi, Taisen: 3 articles (10/2011 - 02/2009)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Feminization:
1. Estrogens (Estrogen)FDA Link
2. HormonesIBA
05/01/2014 - "In trans women (male-to-female transsexual persons), cross-sex hormone therapy is administered to induce feminization. "
03/01/2014 - "Our data support the finding that ERβ function is directly proportional to the size of the analyzed polymorphism, so a greater number of repeats implies greater transcription activation, possibly by increasing the function of the complex hormone ERβ receptor and thereby encouraging less feminization or a defeminization of the female brain and behavior."
01/01/2014 - "It has been revealed that stress in this period functions according to imprinting type that result in feminization of the parameters of sexual hormones contents and metabolic processes, which shows gender features in normal animals and their parameters similar to intact females. "
07/01/2013 - "Here we review evidence from the animal literature that 1) the brain is further sexually differentiated during puberty and adolescence; 2) ovarian hormones play an active role in the feminization of the brain during puberty; and 3) hormonally modulated, sex-specific addition of new neurons and glial cells, as well as loss of neurons, contribute to sexual differentiation of hypothalamic, limbic, and cortical regions during adolescence. "
07/01/2013 - "Decades of research have led to the views that structural sexual dimorphisms created during perinatal development are passively maintained throughout life, and that ovarian hormones do not play an active role in feminization of the nervous system. "
3. Testosterone (Sustanon)FDA Link
4. Growth Hormone (Somatotropin)IBA
5. LecithinsIBA
6. PhospholipidsIBA
7. AntibodiesIBA
8. Aromatase (CYP19)IBA
9. Diethylstilbestrol (Stilbestrol)FDA Link
10. LactoferrinIBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Hypophysectomy
2. Laryngoplasty
3. Oral Surgery (Maxillofacial Surgery)
4. Aftercare (After-Treatment)
5. Castration