Exotropia (Exophoria)

A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.
Also Known As:
Exophoria; Exotropia, Alternating; Alternating Exotropia; Divergent Strabismus; Exodeviation; Monocular Exotropia; Primary Exotropia; Secondary Exotropia; Exodeviations; Exotropia, Monocular; Exotropia, Primary; Exotropia, Secondary; Strabismus, Divergent
Networked: 240 relevant articles (12 outcomes, 17 trials/studies) for this Disease, Comments

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Exotropia (Exophoria)
2. Refractive Errors (Refractive Error)
3. Esotropia (Esophoria)
4. Diplopia (Double Vision)
5. Amblyopia (Lazy Eye)


1. Lee, Jong Bok: 4 articles (01/2015 - 01/2007)
2. Chung, Seung Ah: 3 articles (01/2015 - 09/2011)
3. Holmes, Jonathan M: 3 articles (09/2014 - 04/2010)
4. Hong, Samin: 3 articles (06/2010 - 12/2006)
5. Han, Sueng-Han: 3 articles (06/2010 - 12/2006)
6. Broniarczyk-Loba, Anna: 3 articles (01/2010 - 01/2003)
7. Sharifi, Mohammad: 2 articles (12/2014 - 10/2008)
8. Sener, Emin Cumhur: 2 articles (04/2014 - 02/2004)
9. Sanac, Ali Sefik: 2 articles (04/2014 - 02/2004)
10. Kekunnaya, Ramesh: 2 articles (12/2013 - 12/2011)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Exotropia:
1. Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum Toxin)IBA
2. Retinaldehyde (Retinal)IBA
3. GABA-B Receptor AgonistsIBA
4. Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels (Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel)IBA
5. DexmedetomidineFDA Link
6. 4-Aminopyridine (4 Aminopyridine)IBA
7. Carbonic Anhydrases (Carbonic Anhydrase)IBA
8. BaclofenFDA LinkGeneric
9. Acetazolamide (Diamox)FDA LinkGeneric
10. Episodic ataxia with nystagmusIBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Eyeglasses (Spectacles)
2. Lenses
3. Sutures (Suture)
08/01/2006 - "The following quantitative characteristics of the results of bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions were chosen for study to see whether the new torque vector model or the classic length-tension model would better predict these characteristics: (1) larger bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions produce more effect per millimeter, with the dose-response curve approximating an exponential shape; (2) the exact location of the preplaced medial rectus muscle suture prior to muscle disinsertion in recessions has minimal effect on the postoperative ocular alignment; and (3) medial rectus muscle recessions of more than eight mm are likely to produce an early consecutive exotropia. "
01/01/2003 - "The aim of this study is to present the results of surgery in intermittent divergent strabismus with adjustable sutures, and to compare them to the results of conventional technique. "
06/01/2010 - "The most effective procedure for exotropia was maximal, bilateral lateral rectus recessions (8 mm or 17 mm from the limbus) with medial rectus resections (7 mm) using adjustable sutures. "
04/01/2010 - "In this case series, a lateral rectus muscle posterior fixation suture was useful in addressing incomitant exodeviations. "
12/01/2006 - "Full tendon transposition augmented with posterior intermuscular suture and recession-resection surgery was performed for a 26-year-old male patient had monocular elevation deficiency (MED) and large exotropia. "
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4. Orthoptics (Orthoptic)
5. Injections

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for Exotropia,
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