|2.||Diplopia (Double Vision)
|3.||Optic Nerve Diseases (Optic Neuropathy)
|4.||Eye Diseases (Eye Disease)
|1.||Kazim, Michael: 5 articles (05/2015 - 02/2003)|
|2.||Selva, Dinesh: 5 articles (02/2015 - 02/2003)|
|3.||Kahaly, G J: 4 articles (01/2015 - 03/2004)|
|4.||Mehta, Purnima: 4 articles (12/2011 - 12/2010)|
|5.||Wiersinga, Wilmar M: 4 articles (01/2011 - 10/2005)|
|6.||Metson, Ralph: 4 articles (07/2009 - 10/2002)|
|7.||Nishida, Yasuhiro: 3 articles (11/2015 - 07/2002)|
|8.||Lee, Sang Yeul: 3 articles (02/2014 - 07/2007)|
|9.||Yoon, Jin Sook: 3 articles (02/2014 - 07/2007)|
|10.||Dazzi, Davide: 3 articles (01/2014 - 01/2007)|
07/01/2013 - "Decrease in proptosis and improvement in extraocular movements were also significantly better with the use of steroids (P = .027 at day 10, P = .003 at day 14, respectively). "
12/01/2010 - "She showed remission and exacerbation of right proptosis and eyelid swelling, which responded to oral and intravenous steroids. "
03/01/2007 - "A trial of steroids failed to resolve the proptosis to a significant extent. "
04/01/2015 - "The initial presentation of acute onset proptosis with optic nerve compromise can be suggestive of infectious etiologies, however, this case suggests caution in evaluation of patients with known systemic malignancy, particularly ALL, as early intervention with systemic steroids and surgery may result in return of visual function. "
07/01/2013 - "While a significant number of patients in Group 1 had mild residual ptosis, proptosis, and movement restriction at 12 weeks, none of the patients treated with steroids had any residual changes (P = .023, P = .001, and P = .001, respectively). "
10/01/2013 - "Rapid resolution of proptosis and visual symptoms along with excellent cosmetic outcome was seen at follow-ups after three and nine months. "
12/01/2011 - "All patients had controlled thyroid functions and underwent surgery for cosmetic rehabilitation, with analysis of the reduction in proptosis, changes in visual acuity and post-operative complications. "
06/01/2010 - "The proptosis, motility, or cosmetic concerns associated with stable GO are commonly remedied with surgical intervention. "
02/01/2010 - "In any case, surgical procedures need to be tailored to the individual patient, knowing that further operations are essential to improve cosmetic results after proptosis correction."
06/01/2006 - "Indications for surgery comprised cosmetic correction of exophthalmos (27/33 patients), corneal damage (5/33), and rapid bilateral deterioration of visual acuity in 1 patient. "
|3.||Adrenal Cortex Hormones (Corticosteroids)IBA
04/01/2008 - "We report on a 5-year-old boy with cranial bone involvement, proptosis and xanthomatous cutaneous lesions, treated successfully with systemic corticosteroids."
04/01/2002 - "Exophthalmos: a rare complication of systemic corticosteroids."
03/01/1964 - "CASE NO. 29-ENDOCRINE EXOPHTHALMOS RESPONDING TO MASSIVE DOSES OF CORTICOSTEROIDS."
01/01/1988 - "We propose a new therapeutic approach in treatment of acute exophthalmos which consists of intensive plasma exchange followed during a few months, by the administration of small amounts of corticosteroids. "
01/01/2006 - "His symptoms, including proptosis and diplopia, improved after surgical debulking and use of systemic corticosteroids."
|4.||Prednisone (Sone)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/2012 - "The patient was treated with oral prednisone and the proptosis resolved within 3 weeks."
09/01/2011 - "After one year, prednisone was discontinued and all of the symptoms and signs, except proptosis, were resolved. "
12/01/1994 - "The patient was given prednisone 2 mg/kg/day for 2 months; exophthalmos disappeared within 10 days and the child was normal 7 years later. "
07/01/1984 - "If this is not followed by regression of the exophthalmos, treatment with prednisone over a period of several weeks is indicated. "
08/01/1982 - "Proptosis, ductional restrictions, and responsiveness to oral prednisone administration were characteristic. "
|5.||Prednisolone (Predate)FDA LinkGeneric
12/01/2013 - "First she received prednisolone therapy and the proptosis partially improved. "
12/01/2011 - "The patient was successfully treated with a course of oral prednisolone which resulted in improvement of orbital inflammation, ocular movements and proptosis. "
04/01/1987 - "6 women with Graves' ophthalmopathy treated with prednisolone for severe endocrine exophthalmos were compared with 6 healthy female volunteers. "
03/01/1991 - "However when proptosis is severe, with raised intraocular pressure, severe chemosis and danger of blindness, then the choice of therapy is controversial: rapid decompression by surgical means or use of high doses of prednisolone. "
09/01/2009 - "Systemic acyclovir and prednisolone led to recovery of visual acuity and ocular motility in addition to resolution of his proptosis and ptosis. "
|6.||Cyclosporine (Ciclosporin)FDA LinkGeneric
08/27/1983 - "Cyclosporin given to two patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy produced a rapid objective improvement in both, including restoration of ocular-muscle function and visual acuity, improvement in exophthalmos, and reduction in orbital muscle swelling judged by computed tomographic scan. "
11/16/1989 - "During the 12-week treatment period, 11 prednisone-treated and 4 cyclosporine-treated patients responded to therapy (61 percent vs. 22 percent; P = 0.018); response was manifested by decreases in eye-muscle enlargement and proptosis and improved visual acuity and total and subjective eye scores. "
03/01/1989 - "Serum samples were obtained from 65 patients with endocrine exophthalmos class I-V. In 33/65 patients who were treated either with prednisone or with ciclosporin, blood was sampled before, during and after therapy. "
06/01/1946 - "Studies on exophthalmos produced by thyrotropic hormone; further study of changes induced in fat by thyrotropic hormone (tissue reactions associated with exophthalmos)."
05/01/1946 - "Studies on exopthalmos produced by thyrotropic hormone; changes induced in various tissues and organs (including the orbit) by thyrotropic hormone and their relationship to exophthalmos."
03/01/1946 - "Studies on exophthalmos produced by thyrotropic hormone; a study of exophthalmos produced by various thyrotropic hormones and the influence of the testes on the exophthalmos."
01/01/2009 - "The latter concept failed to explain the exophthalmos, which cannot be reproduced by over-dosage of thyroid hormone. "
01/01/1999 - "The presence of staring eyes, slight proptosis and lid retraction in these newborns without any autoimmune or inflammatory process supports the hypothesis that these ocular manifestations are caused by the increased thyroid hormone actions. "
09/01/1994 - "Exophthalmos, piloerection and eyelid-drooping (ptosis) were observed within 1 h after administration of the antibodies. "
06/01/1989 - "Initially, all were euthyroid, seven had thyroid enlargement, one had proptosis, and seven had high serum titers of antithyroid microsomal antibodies. "
03/01/1989 - "Eye muscle antibodies in endocrine exophthalmos. "
01/01/1984 - "The percentage of LGL was inversely correlated with the serum levels of T4 and T3 and the free T4 index, but not with the titre of anti-thyroid antibodies, the size of goitre or the degree of proptosis in the group of untreated patients with GD and HD. "
02/01/1981 - "Goitre was found in 37%, exophthalmos in 23%, positive thyroid auto-antibodies in 24% and abnormal TRH tests in 49%. "
|9.||Thyrotropin Receptors (Thyrotropin Receptor)IBA
12/01/2007 - "Months later she developed bilateral exophthalmos and was serum-positive for thyrotropin receptor antibodies. "
02/01/2001 - "Furthermore, RI, but not exophthalmos, significantly correlated with serum TSH receptor antibodies, an indicator for the disease activity of GO. "
06/01/1993 - "An attempt at treatment discontinuation is warranted in patients with good disease control of 2 to 3 years duration, goiter size reduction, improved exophthalmos, and decreased anti-TSH receptor antibodies."
01/01/2014 - "The therapeutic outcomes defined as: i) reduction of the clinical activity score (CAS) ≥2 points or ii) reduction of proptosis ≥2 mm or iii) improvement of diplopia according to the Gorman score were also studied in relation to treatment schedule, age, gender, duration of thyroid or GO, smoking habits, and serum TSH-receptor autoantibodies levels. "
06/01/2006 - "Our results support the hypothesis of a role of thyrotropin receptor antibodies in the pathogenesis of TAO and suggest that only EOM enlargement is responsible for proptosis in TAO."
|10.||Immune Sera (Antisera)IBA
09/01/1983 - "A prospective immunological study of patients with proptosis due to intraorbital lesions composed largely or exclusively of lymphoid tissue indicates that the use of antisera to specific heavy and light chain antibody components can be helpful in distinguishing between polyclonal and truly neoplastic monoclonal disorders. "
04/01/2014 - "One patient underwent bilateral orbital decompression for severe proptosis, while two patients underwent bilateral lower epiblepharon correction with good outcomes. "
11/01/2011 - "A statistically significant correlation exists between the amount of proptosis reduction from orbital decompression surgery and improvement in lower lid retraction. "
07/01/2011 - "Three-wall decompression surgery resulted in a significantly greater reduction in exophthalmos (median 7 mm) compared with two-wall surgery (median 5 mm) and one-wall surgery (2.5 mm). "
11/01/2009 - "The average proptosis reduction for all decompressions was 5.0 (SD 2.1) mm. After three-wall decompression the proptosis reduction was significantly greater than after two-wall decompression. "
08/01/2006 - "Decompression of one wall produced a nonstatistical significant reduction in proptosis. "
09/01/2011 - "Tomotherapy may provide better coverage of the target volume and may be more effective in reducing severe exophthalmos compared to the conventional radiotherapy technique."
03/01/2011 - "She was managed with orbital radiotherapy, resulting in resolution of proptosis, but without improvement in vision. "
11/01/2003 - "At 6 months after radiotherapy, there was improvement in exophthalmos in 74.5% of cases and improvement in retropulsion in 83.0%, and all cases of previous color deficiency improved. "
01/01/1978 - "It is of equal importance to be aware that many conditions producing exophthalmos can be cured by direct orbital exploration, radiotherapy, or medical management. "
01/01/2015 - "The T2 signal intensity ratios of orbital MRI inferior rectus and ipsilateral temporal muscle (T2SIR), extraocular muscles (EOM) volume, and the exophthalmos degree was compared by MRI check to evaluate the effect of radiotherapy. "
|3.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
01/01/2003 - "Proptosis, intraocular pressure and visual acuity improved following external beam radiation therapy of the left orbit and repeated systemic chemotherapy. "
11/15/2015 - "Despite chemotherapy he showed progressive exophthalmos and vision loss. "
01/01/2015 - "The proptosis worsened and the infant died few days after two cycles of chemotherapy. "
12/01/2012 - "About 6 weeks later, the patient presented with bilateral total loss of vision and proptosis; therefore, DHAP chemotherapy was started. "
05/01/2011 - "All patients received chemotherapy and/or orbital radiation with resolution of proptosis but no improvement of vision. "
04/01/2013 - "Patients had a good outlook, after treatment directed at the cause, with a modest improvement in vision and exophthalmos in more than half of patients."
04/01/2013 - "After treatment, the vision of 19.4% of the patients improved and proptosis improved by 68.4%. "
01/01/1995 - "97.3% of the patients with exophthalmos showed improvement after treatment in all the 3 groups."
12/17/1988 - "Exophthalmos improved early after treatment, but this improvement was not maintained. "
11/01/2015 - "The proptosis value seemed to be unchanged after treatment."
06/01/1954 - "[Pulsatile exophthalmos cured by ligation of the homolateral internal carotid]."
07/01/1927 - "Exophthalmos Cured by Carotid Ligation."
04/01/1916 - "PULSATING EXOPHTHALMOS: WITH REPORT OF A CASE CURED BY LIGATION OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY."
01/01/1968 - "Treatment of pulsating exophthalmos by ligation of the external carotid]."
02/01/1961 - "[Pulsating exophthalmos and carotid ligation]."