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Etorphine (M99)

A narcotic analgesic morphinan used as a sedative in veterinary practice.
Also Known As:
M99; Ethorphine; 6,14-Ethenomorphinan-7-methanol, 4,5-epoxy-3-hydroxy-6-methoxy-alpha,17-dimethyl-alpha-propyl-, (5alpha,7alpha(R))-
Networked: 81 relevant articles (4 outcomes, 11 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Bio-Agent Context: Research Results

Experts

1. Fuller, Andrea: 4 articles (01/2015 - 02/2006)
2. Meyer, Leith C R: 3 articles (12/2015 - 02/2006)
3. Mitchell, Duncan: 3 articles (01/2015 - 02/2006)
4. Buss, Peter: 2 articles (01/2014 - 09/2007)
5. Marie, Nicolas: 2 articles (06/2008 - 06/2003)
6. Jauzac, Philippe: 2 articles (06/2008 - 06/2003)
7. Allouche, Stéphane: 2 articles (06/2008 - 06/2003)
8. Zeiler, Gareth E: 1 article (12/2015)
9. Stegmann, George F: 1 article (12/2015)
10. Kummrow, Maya: 1 article (12/2015)

Related Diseases

1. Neuroblastoma
2. Respiratory Insufficiency (Respiratory Failure)
3. Glioma (Gliomas)
10/01/1997 - "It was also shown that etorphine-induced apoptosis was prevented by actinomycin D (AD) and interleukin-1beta converting enzyme inhibitor I. Interestingly, etorphine was similarly potent to inhibit growth of pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells but less effective in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and C6 glioma cells. "
11/01/1985 - "Chronic etorphine treatment of neuroblastoma X glioma NG108-15 cells results in both an increase in adenylate cyclase activity (upon addition of the opiate antagonist naloxone) as well as an homologous desensitization of the opiate receptor. "
11/01/1983 - "Chronic treatment of neuroblastoma X glioma NG108-15 hybrid cells with the opiate agonist etorphine resulted in a decrease in both opiate receptor density (receptor down-regulation) and opiate ability to inhibit prostaglandin E1 (PGE1)-stimulated increases in cyclic AMP levels (receptor desensitization). "
12/30/1982 - "The pentapeptide leucine enkephalin induced down-regulation of enkephalin receptors in neuroblastoma-glioma NG108-15 hybrid cells in a reversible fashion, whereas the stable enkephalin analogue D-Ala2-Met-enkephalinamide (AMEA), and the potent opiate alkaloid, etorphine, had a prolonged effect. "
12/01/2002 - "Chronic morphine treatment (1 microm; 72 hr) of DOR carrying neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells, a prototypical model system frequently used to study cellular aspects of opioid tolerance, completely blocked the capacity of [d-Ala2, d-Leu5]enkephalin (DADLE) and etorphine to desensitize opioid-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding and to mediate DOR internalization. "
4. Hypercapnia
01/01/2015 - "Etorphine induced hypoventilation (55% reduction to 7.6 ± 2.7 L.min(-1), F(11,44) = 15.2 P < 0.0001), hypoxia (<45 mmHg, F(11,44) = 8.6 P < 0.0001), hypercapnia (>40 mmHg, F(11,44) = 5.6 P < 0.0001) and pulmonary hypertension (mean 23 ± 6 mmHg, F(11,44) = 8.2 P < 0.0001). "
01/01/1989 - "A commercial neuroleptanalgesic acepromazine-etorphine combination administered intramuscularly to four horses produced a severe tachycardia and an increase in muscular tone, together with hypoxaemia, hypercapnia, metabolic acidosis associated with an increase in the packed cell volume and hyperglycaemia. "
04/01/1983 - "In contrast, etorphine-methotrimeprazine and diazepam produced severe respiratory depression with consequent hypercapnia and acidosis."
06/01/2004 - "White rhinoceros anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone combination develop adverse physiological changes including hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, tachycardia and hypertension. "
01/01/2014 - "Chemical immobilization with etorphine, azaperone and hyaluronidase, as per standard procedure for the white rhinoceros, caused severe respiratory depression with hypoxaemia (PaO2 = 27 ± 7 mmHg [mean ± SD]), hypercapnia (PaCO2 = 82 ± 6 mmHg) and acidosis (pH =7.26 ± 0.02) in the control trial at 5 min. Compared to pre-intervention values, butorphanol administration (without oxygen) improved the PaO2 (60 ± 3 mmHg, F (3,21) =151.9, p < 0.001), PaCO2 (67 ± 4 mmHg, F (3,21) =22.57, p < 0.001) and pH (7.31 ± 0.06, F (3,21) = 27.60, p < 0.001), while oxygen insufflation alone exacerbated the hypercapnia (123 ± 20 mmHg, F (3,21) = 50.13, p < 0.001) and acidosis (7.12 ± 0.07, F (3,21) = 110.6, p < 0.001). "
5. Acidosis
09/01/2007 - "White rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) anesthetized with etorphine combinations develop severe pathophysiologic changes, including hypoventilation, hypoxemia and metabolic acidosis. "
01/01/1989 - "A commercial neuroleptanalgesic acepromazine-etorphine combination administered intramuscularly to four horses produced a severe tachycardia and an increase in muscular tone, together with hypoxaemia, hypercapnia, metabolic acidosis associated with an increase in the packed cell volume and hyperglycaemia. "
04/01/1983 - "In contrast, etorphine-methotrimeprazine and diazepam produced severe respiratory depression with consequent hypercapnia and acidosis."
06/01/2004 - "White rhinoceros anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone combination develop adverse physiological changes including hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, tachycardia and hypertension. "
01/01/2014 - "Chemical immobilization with etorphine, azaperone and hyaluronidase, as per standard procedure for the white rhinoceros, caused severe respiratory depression with hypoxaemia (PaO2 = 27 ± 7 mmHg [mean ± SD]), hypercapnia (PaCO2 = 82 ± 6 mmHg) and acidosis (pH =7.26 ± 0.02) in the control trial at 5 min. Compared to pre-intervention values, butorphanol administration (without oxygen) improved the PaO2 (60 ± 3 mmHg, F (3,21) =151.9, p < 0.001), PaCO2 (67 ± 4 mmHg, F (3,21) =22.57, p < 0.001) and pH (7.31 ± 0.06, F (3,21) = 27.60, p < 0.001), while oxygen insufflation alone exacerbated the hypercapnia (123 ± 20 mmHg, F (3,21) = 50.13, p < 0.001) and acidosis (7.12 ± 0.07, F (3,21) = 110.6, p < 0.001). "

Related Drugs and Biologics

1. Opioid Receptors (Opioid Receptor)
2. Morphine (MS Contin)
3. Oxygen
4. Azaperone
5. Hyaluronoglucosaminidase (Hyaluronidase)
6. Butorphanol (BC 2627)
7. Buprenorphine (Subutex)
8. Caspase 1 (ICE Protease)
9. Dactinomycin (Ac-De)
10. Enkephalins

Related Therapies and Procedures

1. Analgesia
2. Injections
3. Vagotomy
4. Mechanical Ventilators (Ventilator)
5. Premedication