|2.||Varicose Veins (Varicose Vein)
|4.||Esophageal and Gastric Varices (Esophageal Varices)
|1.||Orloff, Marshall J: 11 articles (06/2015 - 07/2009)|
|2.||Hye, Robert J: 10 articles (06/2015 - 07/2009)|
|3.||Isenberg, Jon I: 10 articles (06/2015 - 07/2009)|
|4.||Vaida, Florin: 10 articles (06/2015 - 07/2009)|
|5.||Haynes, Kevin S: 10 articles (06/2015 - 07/2009)|
|6.||Wheeler, Henry O: 9 articles (06/2015 - 07/2009)|
|7.||Sato, Morio: 9 articles (08/2014 - 09/2006)|
|8.||Ferrari, Angelo Paulo: 8 articles (01/2015 - 04/2005)|
|9.||Tomikawa, Morimasa: 8 articles (05/2014 - 01/2002)|
|10.||Kawai, Nobuyuki: 8 articles (03/2014 - 09/2006)|
12/07/2014 - "More trials are needed to clarify the efficacy of TIPS compared with other treatment modalities, including cyanoacrylate injection and balloon retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices. "
01/01/2011 - "Cyanoacrylate injection (CI) might have a better outcome than VBL in the treatment of esophageal varices (EV) in these patients. "
06/01/2010 - "Endoscopic injection of gastric varices with cyanoacrylate is effective in prevention of rebleeding. "
09/01/2003 - "Cyanoacrylate treatment of gastric varices is safe, clinically effective, and cost effective."
03/07/2015 - "Endoscopic variceal obliteration using a small volume of aliquots with repeated cyanoacrylate injection was an effective and safe option for the treatment of gastric varices in children."
|2.||Propranolol (Inderal)FDA LinkGeneric
03/01/2015 - "Endoscopic ultrasonography assessment of para-esophageal varices predicts efficacy of propranolol in preventing recurrence of esophageal varices."
11/01/1990 - "In a double-blind randomized trial, the hemodynamic events following the administration of propranolol (n = 51) or a placebo (n = 51) were prospectively studied in cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices. "
01/01/2009 - "One patient with newly developed gastric varices bled (propranolol group). "
01/01/2009 - "However, portal venous pressure was lower in group I. Early propranolol administration did not protect rats from developing esophageal varices, despite the fact that a significant decrease in portal pressure was detected."
01/01/2009 - "Early propranolol administration does not prevent development of esophageal varices in cirrhotic rats."
11/01/2011 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate gastric myoelectric activity and autonomic activity in patients with esophageal varices treated by an analogue of vasopressin. "
11/01/1995 - "The aim of this study was to elucidate the features of hemodynamic response to vasopressin in the gastroesophageal collateral vein in patients with esophageal varices. "
07/01/1984 - "Vasopressin perfusion of esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients: cineangiographic study."
10/01/1996 - "These data support the view that vasopressin is able to selectively reduce esophageal varices blood flow. "
10/01/1996 - "In splanchnic circulation, vasopressin decreased portal vein (-32 +/- 3%, p < 0.01), superior mesenteric artery (-30 +/- 2%, p < 0.01), and esophageal varices flow velocity (-48 +/- 5%, p < 0.01). "
04/01/2004 - "N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection has been shown to be effective and safe for the endoscopic treatment of gastric varices. "
05/01/2007 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of the endoscopic injection of Histoacryl for the treatment of gastric varices. "
09/01/2002 - "In this study, we report our experience with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (BC) in patients with large gastric varices. "
09/01/2014 - "Since 2006, we have treated gastric varices by standardized endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided Histoacryl injection therapy without severe adverse events. "
09/01/2014 - "Safe and successful endoscopic initial treatment and long-term eradication of gastric varices by endoscopic ultrasound-guided Histoacryl (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) injection."
|5.||Somatostatin (Somatotropin Release-Inhibiting Factor)IBA
02/01/1987 - "[Somatostatin in the treatment of hemorrhaging esophago-gastric varices. "
06/01/1994 - "Is somatostatin effective in the treatment of acute bleeding caused by esophageal varices?"
03/29/1979 - "Somatostatin not helpful in bleeding esophageal varices."
04/22/1996 - "[Randomized trial and meta-analysis of somatostatin versus placebo in bleeding esophageal varices]."
11/01/1990 - "A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of somatostatin was conducted among 120 patients admitted for bleeding esophageal varices (59 placebo, 61 somatostatin). "
|6.||ethanolamine oleate (Ethamolin)FDA Link
02/01/2015 - "The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of new transjugular retrograde obliteration (TJO) without the use of ethanolamine oleate for gastric varices with a gastrorenal shunt. "
01/01/1997 - "The aim of the study was to investigate hematological and arterial and venous gasometric parameters before and after injection of 5% ethanolamine oleate (EO) to the esophageal varices. "
11/01/1988 - "A prospective randomized study comparing the effects of large and small volumes of the sclerosant 5% ethanolamine oleate injected into esophageal varices."
02/01/2015 - "New transjugular retrograde obliteration without the use of ethanolamine oleate for gastric varices."
05/01/2005 - "Complications were evaluated in 38 patients who had fundic gastric varices and 43 B-RTO procedures during injection of ethanolamine oleate (phase 1), within 4 h after injection (phase 2), 24 h after injection (phase 3), and from 24 h to 10 days after injection (phase 4). "
|7.||Sclerosing Solutions (Sclerosing Agents)IBA
12/01/1992 - "This study suggests that the two sclerosants have equal efficacy for treating patients with esophageal varices. "
06/01/1992 - "Experimental study on the effects of sclerosants for esophageal varices on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and systemic hemodynamics."
03/01/1990 - "A comparative evaluation of sclerosants for esophageal varices: a prospective randomized controlled study."
07/01/2004 - "These results were either equivalent to or significantly better than the most commonly used gastric varix hemostatic agent (glue) or other sclerosing agents. "
06/01/1992 - "The effects of five sclerosants used for treating esophageal varices on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, systemic hemodynamics, and vascular endothelial cells were studied in mongrel dogs. "
|8.||polidocanol (Laureth)FDA Link
12/01/2012 - "Variant treatment for gastric varices with polidocanol foam using balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration: a pilot study."
07/01/2012 - "Twenty consecutively registered patients with gastric varices underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration with polidocanol foam. "
04/01/1990 - "[Mechanism of action, indications and problems in using aethoxysklerol as a sclerosing agent in esophageal varices]."
12/01/1988 - "Effect of low dosage of polidocanol in treatment of esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients."
01/01/1983 - "[Experiences with fiber endoscopy sclerosing of esophageal varices with polidocanol]."
|9.||Tissue Adhesives (Tissue Adhesive)IBA
08/01/2011 - "CT portography with gastric variceal volume measurements in the evaluation of endoscopic therapeutic efficacy of tissue adhesive injection into gastric varices: a pilot study."
07/01/2012 - "Injection of tissue adhesive under endoscopic guidance for treatment of gastric varices is convenient, safe and effective."
11/01/2013 - "MUP sonography is useful for the evaluation of the adequacy of tissue adhesive obturation of gastric varices that may reduce the probability of rebleeding."
07/01/2012 - "[Use of endoscopic tissue adhesive injection for gastric varices]."
06/01/2009 - "A novel use of multidetector computed tomographic intravenous (MDCT IV) portography in the evaluation of gastric varices treated with tissue adhesive is described. "
|10.||Octreotide (Sandostatin)FDA LinkGeneric
04/01/2015 - "There are no previous studies yielding the exact duration of octreotide to be administered to prevent rebleed and mortality from esophageal varices. "
04/01/2015 - "Comparison of 2 days versus 5 days of octreotide infusion along with endoscopic therapy in preventing early rebleed from esophageal varices: a randomized clinical study."
07/01/2011 - "Between the octreotide treatment groups, there were no significant differences in the Child-Pugh score, the endoscopic severity of esophageal varices and ACE levels before octreotide treatment. "
07/01/1998 - "We investigated the effects of octreotide infusion on the contractile activity of the esophageal body and lower esophageal sphincter in cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices. "
09/01/2004 - "The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of subcutaneous octreotide treatment, administered after emergency sclerotherapy, in preventing rebleeding of esophageal varices After a bolus injection of 50 microgram octreotide, 34 patients, forming the standard therapy (ST) group, received octreotide infusion at a rate of 50 microgram/h until endoscopic sclerotherapy performed within 36 hours. "
11/01/2000 - "Repeated injection sclerotherapy eradicated esophageal varices in most long-term patients. "
01/01/1985 - "Injection sclerotherapy is one of the most effective treatments for esophageal varices. "
01/01/1999 - "Improved long-term survival following complete eradication of esophageal varices by sclerotherapy."
12/01/1997 - "These results suggest that gastrorenal veins play an important role in the protection against recurrent esophageal varices after sclerotherapy, while the protective role of paraesophageal veins appears to be small."
04/01/1991 - "After surgery, these five continued sclerotherapy until the esophageal varices were eradicated. "
02/01/2002 - "Endoscopic variceal ligation is highly effective in obliterating esophageal varices in children. "
09/01/1999 - "This study was conducted to determine whether prophylactic banding ligation is beneficial for cirrhotic patients with high-risk esophageal varices. "
03/01/2001 - "Our results indicate that endoscopic ligation of esophageal varices combined with APC is superior to ligation alone. "
09/01/2013 - "[Therapeutic efficacy of endoscopic variceal ligation to treat gastric varices: a study of 63 consecutive cases]."
09/01/2013 - "To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) for treating various types of gastric varices (GV) by reviewing patient cases in order to identify the influencing factors of EVL-related recurrence and rebleeding. "
|3.||Surgical Portasystemic Shunt (Portosystemic Shunt)
06/01/2011 - "Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) is a novel interventional technique for gastric varices and portosystemic shunts and also is effective for increasing portal vein flow. "
09/01/2014 - "The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria Committee on interventional radiology has recently recognized balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) as a viable alternative to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in certain anatomic and clinical scenarios for the management of gastric varices. "
09/01/2014 - "Combining Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration or Augmenting TIPS with Variceal Embolization for the Management of Gastric Varices: An Evolving Middle Ground?"
03/01/2014 - "To assess the short-term rebleeding rate associated with the use of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) compared with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for management of gastric varices (GV). "
03/01/2014 - "Short-term rebleeding rates for isolated gastric varices managed by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt versus balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration."
07/01/2013 - "Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) is an interventional radiologic technique that obliterates gastric varices (GV) from draining veins under balloon occlusion. "
09/01/2012 - "Hemodynamic changes after balloon occlusion of the splenic artery during balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for gastric varices."
01/01/2012 - "Dual microcatheter retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices: coil embolization as a substitute for balloon occlusion."
07/01/2011 - "Temporary balloon occlusion of the splenic artery is a useful additional technique for complete obliteration of gastric varices in selected cases."
07/01/2011 - "Six cases of gastric varices with multiple afferent veins, in which balloon-occluded venography of the draining vein showed insufficient filling of gastric varices with contrast medium, were treated by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) and temporary balloon occlusion of the splenic artery. "
01/28/1982 - "A longer follow-up period will be required to assess both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of survival and to determine how long esophageal varices will remain eradicated as well as how frequently repeated injections will be required."
03/01/1979 - "A longer follow-up period will be required to assess both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of survival and to determine how long esophageal varices will remain eradicated as well as how frequently repeated injections will be required."
05/01/2013 - "The role of divided injections of a sclerotic agent over two days in balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for large gastric varices."
09/01/2002 - "One to three injections (0.5-1 mL) were given until all gastric varices became hard. "
09/01/1993 - "The procedure was performed every week, until the esophageal varices at the gastroesophageal junction were too small for any further injections. "