|1.||Deglutition Disorders (Dysphagia)
|2.||Gastroesophageal Reflux (GERD)
|4.||Diffuse Esophageal Spasm (Esophageal Spasm)
|1.||Huebner, Angela: 19 articles (09/2015 - 02/2003)|
|2.||Koehler, Katrin: 12 articles (09/2015 - 03/2006)|
|3.||Patti, Marco G: 12 articles (07/2015 - 05/2003)|
|4.||Zaninotto, Giovanni: 9 articles (06/2015 - 01/2004)|
|5.||Huebner, A: 9 articles (08/2010 - 11/2000)|
|6.||Kashiwagi, Hideyuki: 8 articles (10/2015 - 01/2006)|
|7.||Omura, Nobuo: 8 articles (10/2015 - 01/2006)|
|8.||Yano, Fumiaki: 7 articles (10/2015 - 01/2006)|
|9.||Tsuboi, Kazuto: 7 articles (10/2015 - 01/2006)|
|10.||Yanaga, Katsuhiko: 7 articles (10/2015 - 01/2006)|
|1.||Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum Toxin)IBA
09/01/2008 - "While pneumatic dilatation is superior to botulinum toxin injection surgical myotomy provides the best long-term control of symptoms in patients with achalasia. "
07/01/2003 - "Botulinum toxin is the best treatment option for achalasia in patients whose condition makes them unfit for pneumatic dilation or surgery. "
03/01/2002 - "Achalasia treatment in the elderly: is botulinum toxin injection the best option?"
07/01/2015 - "Endoscopic botulinum toxin injection to the lower esophageal sphincter is an effective and safe option in the treatment algorithm of achalasia, particularly in high-surgical-risk patients. "
10/01/1999 - "Intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin has been reported as a safe and effective alternative treatment in oesophageal achalasia, especially in high-risk and elderly patients. "
|2.||onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox)FDA Link
07/01/2002 - "Over a five-year time horizon, pneumatic dilation was the most cost-effective treatment strategy for achalasia, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1348 per quality-adjusted life-year compared to Botox. "
04/01/2002 - "Multiple controlled studies have shown that Botox is effective in short-term management of achalasia. "
01/01/1996 - "Endoscopic intrasphincteric BoTox injection is safe, simple and effective in the short term treatment for achalasia. "
01/01/1996 - "In this study we evaluated the efficacy of transendoscopic injection of BoTox in 13 symptomatic patients with achalasia G II (Siewert classification) without previous treatment of an ongoing randomized-controlled trial. "
08/01/2012 - "The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy of posterior IAS myectomy with intrasphincteric Botox injection for treatment of IAS achalasia. "
|3.||Nifedipine (Adalat)FDA LinkGeneric
11/01/1986 - "Nifedipine, which is commonly used in adult patients with achalasia, may be beneficial for short-term symptomatic relief in children until more definitive therapy can be performed."
06/01/1991 - "It is concluded that longterm treatment with sublingual nifedipine and pneumatic dilatation are equally effective in the treatment of oesophageal achalasia of mild or moderate degree."
01/01/1990 - "In the 3 cases of achalasia, treatment with nifedipine led to clinical improvement with relaxation of inferior esophageal contraction on radiologic examination. "
01/01/1988 - "The only case of vigorous achalasia studied showed an adynamic pattern with activity in peaks which improved after the administration of nifedipine. "
03/01/1982 - "Nifedipine improved symptoms of achalasia, but did not improve the degree of esophageal dilatation. "
05/01/2010 - "The diagnosis of primary cricopharyngeal achalasia is difficult, and we must apply exclusive diagnosis according to the examinations of fibrolaryngoscopy, esophagoscopy and barium meal et al. Surgical treatment is the best option. "
09/01/2011 - "Esophageal emptying assessed at the 'timed barium' esophagogram correlates well with symptomatic outcomes after pneumatic dilation for esophageal achalasia, although 30% of patients with satisfactory outcome exhibit partial improvement in emptying. "
01/01/2009 - "An improved method of assessing esophageal emptying using the timed barium study following surgical myotomy for achalasia."
03/01/2015 - "Reduction in height of barium column in timed barium esophagogram (TBE) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure on manometry has been used to assess efficacy of pneumatic dilation (PD) in patients with achalasia; data comparing these two methods to assess efficacy of PD are scanty. "
10/01/2015 - "This study suggests that an IRP4 s greater than 12.3mmHg is predictive of achalasia in children, particularly when used in conjunction with other clinical signs such as esophageal obstruction on barium fluoroscopy and abnormal peristalsis on eHRM. "
01/01/2013 - "SILHD for achalasia is a new approach and may provide improved cosmetics and less invasiveness compared with those by conventional LHD. "
02/01/2003 - "Laparoscopic distal esophagomyotomy combined with partial fundoplication may be the surgical approach of choice in achalasia because it is safer, provides good to excellent relief of symptoms and excellent cosmetic results, involves a shorter hospital stay, and is easy to execute. "
08/01/1994 - "The therapeutic application of BTX, however, extends beyond movement disorders; chemodenervation with BTX has been found to ameliorate spasticity, rigidity, spastic bladder, achalasia, and even some cosmetic conditions. "
12/01/2007 - "BoNT is used for hyperhidrosis and gustatory sweating syndrome, alleviation of pain, as a treatment for overactive bladder, achalasia and anal fissure; and it has gained popularity as a cosmetic aid. "
07/01/2011 - "Intramuscular BoNT injection is widely recognized as a safe and effective treatment for blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, cervical dystonia, spasticity, squint, migraine, hyperhidrosis, wrinkles (cosmetic purpose), achalasia, hyperactive bladder, etc. BoNT preparations are used in more than 70 countries. "
07/01/1993 - "Radionuclide transit study using 99mTc-Sn colloid was a preferable method to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment quantitatively in an achalasia."
07/01/1993 - "The therapeutic effects on pneumatic dilatation were evaluated quantitatively by radionuclide transit study using 99mTc-Sn colloid in an achalasia patient. "
04/01/1983 - "In this study we evaluated esophageal emptying using an isotope-labeled solid meal (an egg salad sandwich labeled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid) and compared it with lower esophageal sphincter pressure and a graded symptom score in the assessment of treatment in achalasia. "
07/01/1990 - "The effect of 5 mg of sublingual dinitrate isosorbide (DNI) on the esophageal emptying of a semi-solid test meal labeled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid was studied by a scintigraphic technique in 18 chagasic patients with megaesophagus. "
07/01/2005 - "99mTc sulfur colloid solid gastric emptying study, radio-opaque marker gut transit study, and esophageal manometry showed features suggestive of gastroparesis and achalasia cardia; electrogastrography revealed bradygastria. "
03/01/1993 - "However, the incidence of varicella-zoster virus antibodies was significantly greater in the achalasia than in the control group (p < 0.05). "
10/01/1999 - "The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of such antibodies in chronic chagasic and non-chagasic patients with esophageal achalasia and their ability to activate M(2) mAChR in the isolated esophagus. "
07/01/2006 - "In achalasia, no correlation exists among HLA alleles, antineuronal antibodies and clinical features. "
07/01/2006 - "As a whole, 14 of 60 (23.3%) achalasia patients were carriers of HLA risk alleles, and 10 of 41 (24.4%) presented antineuronal antibodies. "
07/01/2006 - "HLA and enteric antineuronal antibodies in patients with achalasia."
|8.||Nitric Oxide (Nitrogen Monoxide)FDA Link
11/01/1993 - "Since recent studies in animals suggest that nitric oxide (NO) is implicated physiologically in the inhibitory responses of the lower oesophageal sphincter, we have investigated whether the synthesis of NO is altered in the gastro-oesophageal junction of patients with achalasia. "
03/01/2015 - "Nitric oxide signaling appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of achalasia in humans. "
03/01/2015 - "Nitric oxide is thought to have a role in the pathogenesis of achalasia. "
10/01/2014 - "Nitric oxide (NO) is an important inhibitory mediator of esophageal function, and its lack leads to typical features of achalasia. "
03/01/2006 - "Serum from achalasia patients alters neurochemical coding in the myenteric plexus and nitric oxide mediated motor response in normal human fundus."
|9.||Calcium Channel Blockers (Blockers, Calcium Channel)IBA
02/01/1992 - "Calcium channel blockers may be the initial choice for high or moderate risk patients with achalasia prior to proceeding with pneumatic dilatation or surgical myotomy. "
03/01/1991 - "Calcium channel blockers have been previously shown to decrease lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and improve symptoms in achalasia. "
02/01/1992 - "Early studies confirmed the beneficial effects of calcium channel blockers on the normal oesophagus, which included a decrease in lower oesophageal sphincter tone in achalasia and a decrease in oesophageal contractions and amplitude in diffuse oesophageal spasm. "
09/01/1990 - "Although calcium channel blockers, like nifedipine, lower LOS basal pressure, they are not very useful on long term relief of symptoms of achalasia. "
09/01/2008 - "Medical treatment with nitrates or calcium channel blockers has variable results in alleviating the symptoms of achalasia but long-term results are disappointing because of tolerance and side effects. "
06/01/1988 - "[Effect of calcium antagonists on esophageal motor activity in cardial achalasia]."
02/01/1992 - "An overview of the role of calcium antagonists in the treatment of achalasia and diffuse oesophageal spasm."
11/12/1983 - "Calcium antagonists are also useful in the management of oesophageal achalasia, Raynaud's disease, and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, and may be of use in premature labour."
03/01/1982 - "The effect of nifedipine, one of calcium antagonists, was studied on esophageal function of 10 patients with achalasia. "
01/01/1981 - "The effect of a new calcium antagonist, nifedipine, which has a spasmolytic activity on smooth muscle cells, was studied on the esophageal function of 20 patients with achalasia of mild and moderate degree. "
10/28/2009 - "Myotomy, particularly laparoscopic myotomy with fundoplication, is the most effective treatment for achalasia. "
07/01/2006 - "Although pneumatic dilatation has been the first line treatment for esophageal achalasia, laparoscopic Heller myotomy and partial fundoplication (e.g., Dor fundoplication) to prevent reflux is preferred by most gastroenterologists and surgeons as the primary treatment modality. "
04/01/2005 - "Surgery actually achieves the best results in the treatment of esophageal achalasia; the options vary from a short extramucosal esophagomyotomy to an extended esophagogastromyotomy with an associated partial fundoplication to restore the main antireflux barrier. "
05/01/2007 - "Laparoscopic cardiomyotomy with anterior partial fundoplication achieves excellent symptomatic relief for patients with achalasia, and it can be performed with minimal morbidity."
07/01/2001 - "Laparoscopic cardiomyotomy with anterior partial fundoplication achieves excellent symptomatic relief for patients with achalasia, and it can be performed with minimal morbidity."
12/01/1995 - "Endoscopic pneumatic balloon dilation is a safe and effective treatment for achalasia and should be considered as the initial treatment of choice in most patients with achalasia."
09/01/2014 - "Graded Pneumatic Balloon Dilation (PBD) is a safe and effective form of symptomatic treatment of achalasia without significant complication in the hands of experts."
11/01/2011 - "We evaluated the efficacy of EO injection in 13 patients with IA that are resistant to or a poor candidate of pneumatic balloon dilation and/or cardiomyotomy at the Digestive Disease Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran, as the major referral center for achalasia in Iran in an interventional study. "
06/01/2008 - "Pneumatic balloon dilation therapy is as effective as esophagomyotomy for achalasia."
08/01/2004 - "Endoscopic balloon dilation is an effective treatment for achalasia, with minimal morbidity (60 % experience long-term benefit)."
06/01/1999 - "At completion of the study, 14/20 high risk achalasia patients (70 %) treated with periodic BTX injections are still in clinical remission. "
12/01/2005 - "Heller-Dor surgery is safe and effective as a primary or a second-line treatment (after pneumatic dilations or BT injections) for achalasia. "
05/01/2001 - "The short-term efficacy of intrasphincteric injection of BT in achalasia is now well established, however, because of the chronic nature of the disease, patients will require repeated injections at regular intervals. "
02/01/2011 - "Symptom relief was more prolonged compared to achalasia when repeat injections were performed on demand (P = 0.003). "
10/01/2004 - "The treatment of achalasia has undergone a dramatic evolution over the past ten years with the introduction of advanced laparoscopic techniques beside the use of balloon dilatation and injections of botulinumtoxin. "
12/01/2010 - "A temporary self-expanding metallic stent with a diameter of 30 mm has superior clinical efficacy for the treatment of achalasia compared with pneumatic dilation or self-expanding metallic stents with diameters of 20 or 25 mm."
03/01/2010 - "Retrievable stent placement is more effective than the same diameter pneumatic dilation for the treatment of achalasia with a long-term follow up."
02/01/2014 - "Insertion of retrievable, fully covered metal stents is an effective and safe treatment in patients with achalasia. "
07/01/2010 - "The present study compares the efficacy of a self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS, diameter of 30 mm) and pneumatic dilation for the long-term clinical treatment of achalasia. "
02/01/2014 - "Clinical remission following endoscopic placement of retrievable, fully covered metal stents in patients with esophageal achalasia."
10/01/2011 - "Laparoscopic Heller myotomy is the gold standard surgical treatment for patients with achalasia, whereas esophagectomy is reserved for the more advanced stages of disease. "
09/01/2012 - "The laparoscopic esophagectomy shown to be effective in the treatment of advanced achalasia. "
10/01/2008 - "Subtotal esophagectomy and gastric pull-up with cervical anastomosis is the main treatment for advanced achalasia. "
09/01/2001 - "Esophagectomy, preferably through a transhiatal approach, is generally safe and effective therapy in selected patients with achalasia. "
02/01/2014 - "This is the largest study to date examining outcomes after esophagectomy in patients with achalasia. "