|2.||Migraine Disorders (Migraine)
|5.||Partial Epilepsies (Epilepsy, Partial)
|1.||Löscher, Wolfgang: 84 articles (12/2015 - 01/2002)|
|2.||Sander, Josemir W: 69 articles (12/2015 - 01/2005)|
|3.||Elger, Christian E: 62 articles (11/2015 - 01/2002)|
|4.||Perucca, Emilio: 57 articles (11/2015 - 01/2002)|
|5.||Kossoff, Eric H: 50 articles (09/2015 - 02/2002)|
|6.||Berkovic, Samuel F: 49 articles (09/2015 - 02/2002)|
|7.||Boon, Paul: 48 articles (12/2015 - 04/2002)|
|8.||Cavalheiro, Esper A: 48 articles (08/2015 - 03/2002)|
|9.||Wang, Xuefeng: 47 articles (12/2015 - 01/2007)|
|10.||Verrotti, Alberto: 46 articles (10/2015 - 04/2002)|
|1.||Anticonvulsants (Antiepileptic Drugs)IBA
01/01/2013 - "Despite the frequent use of anticonvulsant drugs, remarkably little is known about the safety and efficacy of most of these medications in the pediatric epilepsy population. "
01/03/2012 - "We retrospectively examined treatment records of developmentally disabled adults with highly refractory epilepsy to determine whether any combinations of 8 of the most commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) possessed superior efficacy. "
03/01/2006 - "The availability of ten new antiepileptic drugs since the late 1980s has not dramatically improved the outcome of refractory epilepsy. "
01/19/1998 - "In spite of some 30 years of 'modern' neuroscientific epilepsy research, most novel, clinically effective second generation anticonvulsants have been found by screening (i.e. "
12/01/1993 - "The increasing availability of new antiepileptic drugs coupled with the increasing success of epilepsy surgery has dramatically improved the life of many children with epilepsy."
|2.||Valproic Acid (Valproate, Semisodium)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2005 - "The efficacy of sodium valproate for the treatment of most types of epilepsy has been demonstrated extensively and this drug remains the mainstay of treatment for many clinical situations. "
01/01/2001 - "The highest efficiency of depakine was achieved in idiopathic forms of epilepsy (complete remission--in 74% of the cases) and, therefore, depakine can be used as a monotherapy. "
06/01/2000 - "We review the adverse effects and emphasize the need to attain the desired dose after a slow, progressive increase in dosage, particularly when it is associated with valproic acid, since this therapeutic combination is very effective in refractory epilepsies. "
01/01/2009 - "In the second section we review the results of animal research, which could be beneficial in assessing the effects of valproate and epilepsy."
08/01/1994 - "A girl with intractable epilepsy who received high dose valproic acid showed bone marrow suppression, which improved after the end of valproic acid treatment and the administration of supportive treatments. "
|3.||lamotrigine (Lamictal)FDA LinkGeneric
12/16/2001 - "The new anti-epileptic drugs have a major therapeutic advantage, not only in the management of epilepsy in different clinical situations, but also in the good results observed when using lamotrigine in patients of fertile age."
03/01/1998 - "Lamotrigine (LTG) is a valuable addition to the medical management of epilepsy with wide spectrum of efficacy and good outcomes for quality of life. "
02/01/1998 - "Lamotrigine as add-on treatment (500 mg per day) is effective in patients with refractory epilepsy, but its high cost requires a pharmacoeconomic analysis. "
12/01/2012 - "Overall, lamotrigine is effective and safe in children with refractory epilepsy."
01/01/2000 - "On the other hand, Lamotrigine seems to be more effective in patients with partial epileptic seizures with secondary generalization."
|4.||Carbamazepine (Tegretol)FDA LinkGeneric
11/01/2010 - "Compared with a 3.4% malformation incidence in women who took no AEDs (N = 118), the incidences for LTG (N = 243), carbamazepine (CBZ) (N = 302) and VPA (N = 224) were, respectively, 4.9%, 5.3% and 15.2%, the latter statistically significantly greater than the risk for no AED therapy in pregnant women with epilepsy. "
01/01/1985 - "Because of the favorable anticonvulsant and psychotropic efficacy of carbamazepine in the present study, coupled with the lack of serious side effects, it is recommended that the drug deserves wider use in African children with seizure disorders."
02/01/2006 - "Carbamazepine would appear to be a cost-effective treatment for epilepsy in certain contexts, although evidence from a prospective, randomized, controlled trial is awaited and this assertion may not be true for certain patient subgroups, or in developing world health services. "
09/01/1983 - "Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant agent that has been found clinically useful in the treatment of refractory seizure disorders. "
01/01/2015 - "Whether VGB monotherapy is an effective and safe treatment compared with the standard antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) as monotherapy for epilepsy has not been systematically reviewed. "
|5.||etiracetam (levetiracetam)FDA LinkGeneric
08/01/2010 - "Levetiracetam was well tolerated at the doses studied, and appears most effective in single seizure events."
05/01/2008 - "Levetiracetam treatment was safe and effective in this group of very young patients with various types of epilepsy."
01/01/2011 - "The results of the study revealed the high efficacy of levetiracetam as an add-on treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy in children. "
08/01/2005 - "Fast and sustained efficacy of levetiracetam during titration and the first 3 months of treatment in refractory epilepsy."
02/01/2003 - "Evidence for sustained efficacy of levetiracetam as add-on epilepsy therapy."
|6.||topiramate (Topamax)FDA LinkGeneric
05/01/2003 - "Significant improvement in frontal lobe associated neuropsychological functions after withdrawal of topiramate in epilepsy patients."
07/01/2007 - "In terms of remission, Topamax was more effective in adolescents, youths and adults than in younger children, and this pattern was also seen in the treatment of symptomatic epilepsy. "
10/01/2006 - "With its established efficacy for epilepsy treatment and its increased use for other disorders, topiramate-positive findings are more common in death-investigation and human-performance casework. "
09/01/2012 - "We therefore studied the efficacy and safety of topiramate (TPM), which is a drug that is indicated to be effective for intractable childhood epilepsy, for ES. "
01/01/2008 - "Topiramate: its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in epilepsy."
02/01/2012 - "Vigabatrin was effective for refractory childhood partial-onset epilepsy, and was not associated with symptomatic vision loss."
02/01/1993 - "Vigabatrin has been effective in patients with refractory epilepsy. "
01/01/1989 - "6. Vigabatrin thus appears to be a safe antiepileptic drug that may be effective in the treatment of severe epilepsy in children."
09/01/1994 - "To determine the efficacy of a new anti-epileptic medication vigabatrin in adults and children with drug-resistant epilepsy. "
12/01/2013 - "This study evaluated the efficacy of Vigabatrin in children with intractable epilepsy. "
|8.||Phenytoin (Dilantin)FDA LinkGeneric
04/01/1980 - "Many medications and combinations of medications are available for the control of epilepsy, but phenytoin continues to be the most effective agent for most patients. "
08/01/1986 - "Phenytoin is a major anticonvulsant drug that is very effective in controlling a wide variety of seizure disorders while impairing neurological function little, if at all. "
11/01/2013 - "Phenytoin (DPH) is an anticonvulsant drug that is widely used for the treatment of epilepsy. "
09/01/1976 - "Our observations carried out in a meaningful sample of epileptic patients suggest that at present the practice of monitoring diphenylhydantoin plasma levels is still an essential tool for the management of epilepsy when a safe and effective therapeutic regimen is required."
01/01/1984 - "Single-dose intravenous phenytoin is both effective and safe in the treatment and prevention of epileptic seizures in pediatric patients."
|9.||gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)IBA
02/01/1993 - "Previous studies have shown significantly greater GABA levels and numbers of GABAergic neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICCN) of genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPR-9s). "
05/01/2004 - "It is suggested that subacute electrical stimulation of PHC is more effective in patients with less severe epilepsy, an effect associated with a high GABA tissue content and a low rate of cell loss."
07/01/1986 - "The iontophoretic dose (current) of GABA required to suppress neuronal firing in the epilepsy-prone rat was significantly greater than that required in neurons of the normal rat. "
10/01/1996 - "Drugs which increase the amount of GABA available in presynaptic endings might thus be useful in the treatment of these therapeutically complicated forms of epilepsy. "
06/01/2009 - "Although some of these second generation compounds may be advantageous in terms of kinetics, tolerability and potential for drug interactions, all of them still target voltage-gated channels or GABA-mediated inhibition, predominantly, without any real improvement in epilepsy therapy. "
|10.||zonisamide (Zonegran)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2008 - "These results are similar to the findings of Japanese studies suggesting that long-term use of adjunctive zonisamide therapy may be beneficial for treating mentally retarded, multiple handicapped patients with highly refractory childhood-onset epilepsy."
01/01/2013 - "Adjunctive zonisamide therapy was demonstrated to be beneficial for multiple-disabled patients with refractory childhood-onset epilepsy. "
11/01/2012 - "Based on these results, zonisamide monotherapy is effective in some dogs with idiopathic epilepsy."
03/01/2007 - "Zonisamide (ZNS) is a new AED effective in the treatment of refractory epilepsy and since it is only prescribed in polytherapy regimens, its interactions with other AEDs is of particular importance. "
02/01/2006 - "Zonisamide (Zonegran) has been used extensively worldwide (>2 million patient-years experience) for the effective treatment of a broad range of epilepsy indications. "
08/01/2015 - "A growing body of evidence demonstrates that dietary therapies, mainly the ketogenic diet, may be highly effective in the reduction of epileptic seizures. "
01/01/2012 - "The most notable example of a dietary treatment with proven efficacy against a neurological condition is the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) used in patients with medically intractable epilepsy. "
05/01/2011 - "The ketogenic diet remains one of the most effective treatments for medically refractory childhood epilepsy. "
11/01/2008 - "The ketogenic diet (KD) has shown remarkable efficacy in the treatment of drug-resistant childhood epilepsy. "
08/01/2007 - "Although highly effective for the treatment of intractable epilepsy, the ketogenic diet is not always included in the treatment option hierarchy presented to families, in part due to perceptions that children will find the high-fat/low-carbohydrate regimen unpalatable. "
|2.||Vagus Nerve Stimulation
09/01/2015 - "To study the efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy in a highly drug-resistant childhood epilepsy patient group and to investigate the effect of age at implantation on efficacy. "
07/01/2015 - "Since approved by the FDA in 1997, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for refractory epilepsy and resistant depression. "
04/01/2009 - "Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an alternative treatment for patients with medically refractory epilepsy, who are unsuitable candidates for conventional epilepsy surgery, or who have had such surgery without optimal outcome. "
01/01/2009 - "The efficacy of surgery ranges from curative (resection) to palliative (vagus nerve stimulation, callosotomy, multiple subpial transections) depending on the epilepsy syndrome and etiology. "
07/01/2008 - "Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is effective in treating catastrophic 1 epilepsy in very young children."
|3.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
01/01/2007 - "Since individuals with refractory epilepsy do not share a common reason for their treatment resistance, the use of targeted drug therapies may be our best option for improving treatment outcomes in this patient population. "
01/23/1996 - "Despite all advances in drug therapy, the number of epilepsy patients not satisfactorily treatable with drug therapy has not been dramatically reduced statistically, so that the other two pillars of epilepsy therapy, i.e. "
12/01/2012 - "Therefore, a behavioral therapy proven to be effective in epilepsy could be a valuable adjunct to current pharmacotherapy. "
01/01/1986 - "Alternative single-drug therapy is beneficial for chronic refractory epilepsy and should be considered before a second drug is permanently added."
11/01/2001 - "These issues have implications for the management of young women with epilepsy in general, since major changes in drug therapy and other attempts to reduce the teratogenic risks should be accomplished before conception in order to be effective and safe."
|4.||Deep Brain Stimulation
05/01/2013 - "The 2 alternative forms of therapy that have shown the most promise in humans with epilepsy are electrical stimulation of the brain and dietary modification, both of which have also been evaluated in dogs. "
07/01/2014 - "Deep brain stimulation, specifically high-frequency stimulation (HFS), is an alternative and promising treatment for intractable epilepsies; however, the optimal targets are still unknown. "
10/01/2007 - "Chronic high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) may also be effective in patients with refractory epilepsy. "
08/01/2011 - "Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of epilepsy. "
01/01/2008 - "In the reported series, deep-brain stimulation of 2 unconventional targets belonging to the reticulo-cortical system (the brainstem-diencephalon functional system including structures that act as remote controls in modulating cortical excitability) was found to be effective in controlling otherwise refractory multifocal (pHyp) and focal sensorimotor (CZi) epilepsy when resective surgery was not feasible."
|5.||Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet (Low Carbohydrate Diet)
03/01/2013 - "The modified Atkins diet was found to be effective and well tolerated in children with drug-refractory epilepsy."
02/01/2006 - "A modified Atkins diet is effective for the treatment of intractable pediatric epilepsy."
11/01/2010 - "The Atkins diet can be considered as a safe and effective alternative therapy for intractable childhood epilepsy. "
03/01/2013 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the modified Atkins diet in a randomized controlled trial in children with refractory epilepsy. "
05/01/2009 - "The aim of the present study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of the modified Atkins diet given to children and adolescents with antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment resistant epilepsy. "