Endocardial Cushion Defects

A spectrum of septal defects involving the ATRIAL SEPTUM; VENTRICULAR SEPTUM; and the atrioventricular valves (TRICUSPID VALVE; BICUSPID VALVE). These defects are due to incomplete growth and fusion of the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS which are important in the formation of two atrioventricular canals, site of future atrioventricular valves.
Also Known As:
Cushion Defect, Endocardial; Cushion Defects, Endocardial; Defect, Endocardial Cushion; Defects, Endocardial Cushion; Endocardial Cushion Defect; Persistent Common Atrioventricular Canal
Networked: 29 relevant articles (0 outcomes, 1 trials/studies)

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Tetralogy of Fallot (Fallot Tetralogy)
2. Congenital Heart Defects (Congenital Heart Defect)
3. Ventricular Heart Septal Defects (Ventricular Septal Defect)
4. Atrial Heart Septal Defects (Atrial Septal Defect)
5. Tricuspid Atresia


1. Yuan, Fang: 1 article (01/2015)
2. Liu, Xing-Yuan: 1 article (01/2015)
3. Li, Ruo-Gu: 1 article (01/2015)
4. Li, Li: 1 article (01/2015)
5. Zhang, Xian-Ling: 1 article (01/2015)
6. Qiu, Xing-Biao: 1 article (01/2015)
7. Zhao, Cui-Mei: 1 article (01/2015)
8. Wang, Juan: 1 article (01/2015)
9. Peng, Lu-Ying: 1 article (01/2015)
10. Yang, Yi-Qing: 1 article (01/2015)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Endocardial Cushion Defects:
1. Pulmonary venous return anomalyIBA
01/01/1978 - "[Endocardial cushion defect associated with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return and with ostium secundum atrial septal defect (author's transl)]."
09/01/2007 - "The cardiovascular imaging signs of congenital anomalies that are most often seen in radiologic practice include the egg on a string (seen in transposition of the great arteries), snowman (total anomalous pulmonary venous return), scimitar (partial anomalous pulmonary venous return), gooseneck (endocardial cushion defect), figure of three and reverse figure of three (aortic coarctation), boot-shaped heart (tetralogy of Fallot), and box-shaped heart (Ebstein anomaly)."
11/01/2004 - "Significantly higher rates were found among males for transposition of great arteries, aortic valve stenosis, and interrupted aortic arch and, among females, for ventricular septal defect, endocardial cushion defect, and anomalous pulmonary venous return. "
09/01/1976 - "One hundred and twenty-six cases were found in which aortic valve atresia or stenosis, tricuspid atresia, cardiac anomalies associated to visceral heterotaxy, tetralogy of Fallot, aortic coartation, endocardial cushion defect, ventricular septal defect, total anomalous pulmonary venous return and pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum were the most common malformations. "
05/01/2010 - "Ventricular septal defect (VSD; 4.0) was the most common defect, followed by secundum atrial septal defect (ASDII; 3.2), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA; 2.0), pulmonary stenosis (PS; 1.2), tetralogy of Fallot (TOF; 0.63), coarctation of aorta (CoA; 0.25), transposition of great arteries (TGA; 0.21), endocardial cushion defect (ECD; 0.20), double outlet of right ventricle (DORV; 0.15), total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR; 0.11), aortic stenosis (0.09), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS; 0.062), Ebstein anomaly (0.047), and tricuspid atresia (0.046). "
2. Complete atrioventricular septal defectIBA
3. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor)IBA
4. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor)IBA
5. Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon)FDA Link
6. Polyethylene Terephthalates (Polyethylene Terephthalate)IBA
7. Phenylpropanolamine (Dexatrim)FDA Link
8. Phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine)FDA LinkGeneric
9. Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF)IBA
10. Digoxin (Digitek)FDA LinkGeneric

Therapies and Procedures

1. General Anesthesia
2. Prostheses and Implants (Prosthesis)
3. Sutures (Suture)
4. Sternotomy
5. Heterologous Transplantation (Xenotransplantation)