|2.||Pleural Effusion (Pleural Effusions)
|1.||Shiraishi, Yuji: 7 articles (10/2010 - 02/2004)|
|2.||St Peter, Shawn D: 6 articles (06/2015 - 02/2008)|
|3.||Ris, Hans-Beat: 5 articles (03/2015 - 06/2005)|
|4.||Ng, Thomas: 5 articles (04/2014 - 02/2006)|
|5.||Light, Richard W: 5 articles (07/2013 - 06/2006)|
|6.||Nakajima, Y: 5 articles (07/2010 - 10/2000)|
|7.||Light, R W: 5 articles (11/2009 - 01/2000)|
|8.||Krueger, Thorsten: 4 articles (03/2015 - 01/2006)|
|9.||Ostlie, Daniel J: 4 articles (10/2014 - 02/2008)|
|10.||Jaffé, Adam: 4 articles (03/2013 - 07/2006)|
|1.||Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
08/01/1999 - "Treatment with antibiotics and drainage of empyema resulted in a good outcome in the majority of cases."
04/01/1992 - "Early intrapleural drainage and appropriate antibiotics should be the mainstay of treatment for empyema for the majority of children in Zimbabwe."
12/01/2003 - "Continuous soft tube drainage with intrapleural fibrinolysis and antibiotics is a safe treatment for postpneumonectomy empyema in patients who are not appropriate candidates for operative management."
11/01/2002 - "Gemella empyema cured without antibiotics: a case report."
11/01/1999 - "Thoracic drainage, lavage and systemic administration of antibiotics improved his empyema. "
|2.||Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator (Urokinase)FDA Link
04/01/2002 - "Intrapleural urokinase is effective in treating empyema in children and significantly shortens hospital stay."
12/01/2001 - "We conclude that intrapleural instillation of urokinase in the management of parapneumonic empyema provides a better outcome and reduces the need for decortication."
05/01/2015 - "Urokinase and VATS are equally effective for septated empyema."
03/01/2006 - "Intrapleural instillation of fibrinolytic agent such as urokinase has been shown to be effective as an adjunctive therapy for children with complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema. "
04/01/2002 - "A randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of intrapleural urokinase was performed in children with parapneumonic empyema. "
03/01/2012 - "Is streptokinase fibrinolysis the best treatment for empyema in pediatric patients? "
10/01/2003 - "Intrapleural Streptokinase is a safe and effective means of increasing the tube drainage in multiloculated Empyema without causing systemic fibrinolysis."
10/01/2015 - "We evaluated the efficacy of intra-pleural Streptokinase in management of empyema thoracis even in advanced stages. "
03/01/2012 - "To assess the efficacy of an intrapleural streptokinase washing protocol as a non-operative treatment for stage II pediatric empyema as compared to operative decortications, by the number of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admissions, length of PICU stay, and hospitalization duration. "
08/01/2011 - "In the largest randomized trial, the use of streptokinase had no reduction in mortality, decortication rates or hospital days compared with placebo in the treatment of empyema. "
|4.||Fibrinolytic Agents (Antithrombotic Agents)IBA
06/01/1999 - "Intrapleural instillation of fibrinolytic agents has been shown, in a number of studies, to be an effective and safe mode of treatment in complicated parapneumonic effusions and empyema, minimizing the need for surgical intervention. "
01/30/1999 - "Simple parapneumonic effusions are managed by drainage with or without rinsing with normal saline, while in advanced empyema, instillations with fibrinolytic agents have proved safe and effective. "
10/01/2010 - "The aim of the study is to systematically evaluate data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of using intrapleural fibrinolytic agents in the treatment of complicated parapneumonic effusions or empyema in children. "
03/01/2006 - "We performed a meta-analysis of all properly randomized trials comparing intrapleural fibrinolytic agents with placebo in adult patients with empyema and complicated parapneumonic effusions. "
10/01/1998 - "A prospective trial comparing VATD with intrapleural fibrinolytic agents for the initial treatment of pediatric empyema is needed."
|5.||Tissue Plasminogen Activator (Alteplase)FDA Link
05/01/2012 - "Intrapleural instillation of Alteplase is significantly more effective than Placebo in patients with empyema and PPE (95% vs.12%). "
03/01/2015 - "Large-dose intrapleural alteplase is effective in facilitating pleural drainage in pediatric patients with complicated parapneumonic effusion or empyema. "
05/01/2012 - "A double blind randomized cross over trial to compare the rate of decortication, safety and efficacy of intrapleural instillation of Alteplase vs. Placebo in empyema and complicated parapneumonic effusions (CPE). "
03/01/2003 - "Controlled trials need to be conducted to investigate fully the efficacy, dosing, and safety of intrapleural alteplase in the treatment of patients with CPE and empyema."
03/01/2015 - "Retrospective analysis of large-dose intrapleural alteplase for complicated pediatric parapneumonic effusion and empyema."
08/01/2011 - "The first intrapleural therapies proposed focused on the use of fibrinolytics and DNase to promote fluid drainage in empyema. "
07/01/2004 - "Comprehensive descriptions of the bacteriology of empyema aids antibiotic choice, and the use of intrapleural DNase shows promise in facilitating drainage of infected pleural fluid. "
06/01/2015 - "The combination of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and DNase was effective in animal model experiments of empyema. "
11/01/2006 - "The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of intrapleural heparin or heparin combined with human recombinant DNase in the treatment of empyema. "
06/01/2014 - "Intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and deoxyribonuclease (DNase) therapy is being increasingly employed as an alternative to surgical intervention for the treatment of complicated parapneumonic effusions and empyema. "
|7.||Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin)FDA Link
09/01/1996 - "Bilateral empyema and pneumonia due to chloramphenicol-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b."
12/01/1956 - "Bronchopneumonia, empyema, pneumothorax and bacteremia due to Salmonella choleraesuis (var. Kunzendorf) treated with chloramphenicol."
04/01/2012 - "suppuration: empyema and multiple abscesses were treated successfully with the combination of amikacin and chloramphenicol with good progression in the short and medium terms. "
01/01/2002 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cefuroxime, compared with the combination of dicloxacillin/chloramphenicol, for the treatment of children with parapneumonic pleural effusion or empyema. "
01/01/2002 - "Forty patients, aged 3 months to 5 years, with pleural effusion or empyema were randomized to receive cefuroxime (100 mg/kg/day) IV (n=20) or chloramphenicol (100 mg/kg/day) plus dicloxacillin (200 mg/kg/day) IV (n=20). "
|8.||Penicillins (Penicillin)FDA Link
07/27/1946 - "Gram-negative bacillus empyema cured by intrapleural penicillin."
01/01/2003 - "Culture-negative childhood empyema is usually due to penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular serotype 1."
03/01/2001 - "Outcome of children treated with penicillin and derivatives was good, including children with empyema and pneumatocele and two patients with penicillin-resistant S. "
03/01/1993 - "[Empyema caused by Pasteurella multocida resistant to penicillin]."
08/01/1985 - "This organism is now an important cause of empyema, occurring much more commonly in men than in women; but since it is highly sensitive to penicillins permanent resolution can be achieved with antibiotic treatment combined with open or closed drainage."
|9.||Povidone-Iodine (Betadine)FDA LinkGeneric
03/01/1993 - "This pleural washing method with povidone-iodine was very effective for treatment of empyema patients."
05/01/2001 - "Using povidone-iodine to treat empyema."
03/01/1993 - "In this paper, we report two successful cases of empyema treated by pleural washing with povidone-iodine solution. "
03/01/1993 - "[Pleural washing with povidone-iodine for treatment of empyema]."
07/01/1995 - "The chest drainage and irrigation of the infected pneumonectomy space with physiological saline containing antiseptic povidone iodine (Isodine) were performed 3 times a day for 14 days, however, the empyema was not cured completely. "
|10.||tranilast (N 5')IBA
03/01/2005 - "Mycobacterium tuberculosis (n = 9), Aspergillus fumigatus (n = 6), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [n = 5], and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5) were representative microorganisms isolated from empyema. "
01/01/2001 - "CT depicted increased thickening of the parietal pleura (n=5, 83%) and the extrapleural tissues (n=3, 50%) and empyema necessitans (n=2, 33%), which were not apparent on radiographs. "
12/01/1999 - "In the second period, 36 videothoracoscopies were performed to repair the lung (n = 5) or diaphragm (n = 5), to evacuate clots (n = 4), pericardial effusion (n = 3), and empyema (n = 2). "
07/01/1995 - "The main reasons for conversion were inability to locate or resect lesions due to a deep or central position (n = 13), requirement of further resection (n = 10), adhesions (n = 9), fibrinopurulent empyema (n = 5), bleeding (n = 2) and single-lung-ventilation failure (n = 1). "
10/01/2010 - "Morbidities were bronchial stump dehiscence (n=1) and mycobacterial empyema (n=1) for patients with MDR-TB, and acute respiratory failure (n=1), bronchial stump dehiscence (n=5) and mycobacterial empyema (n=2) for patients with NTM infections. "
01/01/2006 - "Conversion thoracotomy should be liberally used if a chronic stage III empyema is found at VATS exploration since open decortication is still the best treatment modality for chronic empyema. "
10/01/1982 - "Early open thoracotomy to eliminate the empyema with decortication of the fibrinous peel and reexpansion of the lung has proven safe and effective for 25 years. "
01/01/2012 - "Thoracotomy and decortication in children with empyema can be safely done in Cameroon using a simple drainage system with good results compared to those in the literature."
12/01/2011 - "Thoracotomy with decortication is a useful method of treatment of the fibrinopurulent phase of empyema, which solved the problem and also significantly improved lung function, especially at the follow-up after 6 months. "
10/01/2010 - "Early primary VATS for post-pneumonic empyema in children demonstrated a higher success rate, lower conversion to open thoracotomy improved outcome and shorter hospitalisation."
03/01/1991 - "As a sequel to a paper reporting good results obtained in 12 patients with empyema thoracis treated by thoracoscopic debridement and irrigation in our department, subsequent experience with a further 18 patients is reported. "
12/01/2003 - "This study analyzed whether video-assisted thoracoscopic debridement (VATD) as first-line treatment is effective in the management of pediatric parapneumonic empyema. "
01/01/2012 - "VATS debridement and decortication is safe and effective treatment in the management of stage II and stage III empyema thoracis."
10/01/2007 - "In fibrinopurulent empyema, VATS debridement is safe and effective, with minimal morbidity and no deaths. "
08/01/1995 - "Recently, Kern and Rodgers introduced thoracoscopic debridement as an adjunct to the management of children with empyema, with promising results. "
06/01/1996 - "In this study, open window thoracostomy was effective against depuration of the empyema cavity and omental and musculocutaneous flaps against the infection control and plombage of the cavity. "
09/01/2012 - "Therapeutic drainage with small-bore tube thoracostomy has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment of early stage empyema. "
05/01/2006 - "Empyema was treated with tube thoracostomy, and full remission was observed after 33 d. "
02/01/1997 - "The Clagett open-window thoracostomy is performed to give patients with empyema improved quality of life and other outcomes. "
01/01/2012 - "The aim of this study was to review our experience with tube thoracostomy in the management of empyema thoracis in children. "
|4.||Chest Tubes (Chest Tube)
01/01/1994 - "The best treatment of empyema in children is closed chest tube drainage and an antimicrobial therapy with antistaphylococcus antibiotic."
09/01/2008 - "-assisted thoracoscopy surgery was performed following failure of the prescribed antifungal treatment and chest tube drainage, and the empyema resolved completely 3 months postoperatively,with no evidence of recurrence after 5 months' follow-up."
06/01/1997 - "This study supports previous expert opinion statements and conclusions from retrospective analyses that early chest tube placement (relative to delayed chest tube placement) is beneficial for the treatment of empyema."
12/01/1999 - "To determine if therapeutic thoracentesis is as effective as early chest tube placement or no drainage procedure in the treatment of early empyema in rabbits. "
05/01/2014 - "Outcomes results in this population-based study are consistent with practice guidelines and recommendations that recently endorsed chest tube drainage as an acceptable first treatment option for most children with empyema."
|5.||Pneumonectomy (Lung Volume Reduction)
07/01/2006 - "Age less than 65 years and an interval between pneumonectomy and empyema of greater than 15 weeks were independent predictors of improved long-term survival. "
02/01/2013 - "The aim of our study is to evaluate the results of thoraco-mediastinal plication for the treatment of post-pneumonectomy empyema. "
09/01/2015 - "A 58-year-old male presented with empyema necessitatis 18 years after undergoing pneumonectomy. "
09/01/2015 - "Late-onset post-pneumonectomy empyema necessitatis can occur many years after the surgery and is a life-threatening condition. "
04/01/2014 - "Prolonged air-leak and pneumonectomy continue to be significant risk factors for developing empyema. "