|1.||Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
|3.||Dyspnea (Shortness of Breath)
|5.||Lung Diseases (Lung Disease)
|1.||Silverman, Edwin K: 34 articles (10/2015 - 01/2007)|
|2.||Tuder, Rubin M: 34 articles (09/2014 - 05/2002)|
|3.||Lomas, David A: 30 articles (10/2015 - 06/2002)|
|4.||Criner, Gerard J: 26 articles (09/2015 - 01/2002)|
|5.||Coxson, Harvey O: 25 articles (12/2015 - 05/2007)|
|6.||Shapiro, Steven D: 25 articles (08/2015 - 09/2002)|
|7.||Petrache, Irina: 25 articles (02/2015 - 11/2004)|
|8.||Herth, Felix J F: 24 articles (11/2015 - 01/2007)|
|9.||Voelkel, Norbert F: 24 articles (08/2014 - 05/2002)|
|10.||Wright, Joanne L: 22 articles (12/2014 - 09/2002)|
|1.||Pancreatic Elastase (Elastase)IBA
08/01/1997 - "Genetic modification of critical components of the inflammatory process may be beneficial-for example, overexpressing anti-elastase genes may circumvent elastase mediated lung damage in emphysema. "
04/01/1984 - "Emphysema was produced experimentally in rats by administration of porcine pancreatic elastase at dose levels of 75, 100, 125, and 150 units elastase activity/100 g body wt. All doses studied were equally effective in producing emphysema. "
08/01/1998 - "AAT inhibits elastase and could be useful in the treatment of emphysema . "
10/01/2015 - "In this present study, we investigated emphysema development using the elastase-induced experimental emphysema model in two commonly used mouse strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ. "
07/01/2015 - "In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of various doses of MSCs on elastase-induced emphysema in mice. "
01/01/2015 - "RAGE deficient mice (RAGE-/-) exposed to chronic cigarette smoke were significantly protected from smoke induced emphysema as determined by airspace enlargement and had no significant reduction in lung tissue elastance when compared to their air exposed controls contrary to their wild type littermates. "
07/15/2003 - "alpha-1-Antitrypsin ameliorates cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in the mouse."
04/01/1999 - "It has also been proposed as a therapy for cigarette smoke-induced emphysema, although the efficacy of such therapy is as yet unproven. "
11/01/2015 - "Recent evidence in human translational studies and animal models suggests that emphysema is associated with activation of specialized antigen-presenting cells and that cigarette smoke can disrupt the induction of immune tolerance in the lungs. "
11/01/2015 - "In the present study, we examined the effects of HO-1 on smoke‑induced emphysema, as well as the underlying mechanisms in a rat model of smoke-induced emphysema. "
01/01/1996 - "This was associated with a significant reduction in mean maximum fraction of inspired oxygen (0.57 vs 0.66%; p < 0.01), a decreased incidence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema (7 vs 14%; p < 0.05) and a lowered mortality (21 vs 35%; p < 0.01). "
08/01/2014 - "PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood) was improved by administering bFGF-GMS in the total emphysema model (p = 0.027). "
09/01/1997 - "In 50 consecutive patients, preoperative chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans were scored by four radiologists for features related to the severity and distribution of emphysema and compared with clinical improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), arterial partial pressure of oxygen, and exercise tolerance 6 months after surgery. "
09/01/2008 - "Continuous oxygen use in nonhypoxemic emphysema patients identifies a high-risk subset of patients: retrospective analysis of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial."
05/01/1989 - "Most patients comply with prescribed 24-hour-a-day oxygen use; in keeping with the NOTT study, life expectancy of emphysema patients may therefore be increased."
|4.||Leukocyte Elastase (Neutrophil Elastase)IBA
12/01/1991 - "4. In vivo, the inhibitory effects of intratracheally administered rALP242 and rALP231 towards human-neutrophil-elastase-induced emphysema were significantly greater than that of recombinant antileucoprotease. "
01/01/1991 - "However, the evidence for involvement of neutrophil elastase in human emphysema is not clear: there are studies using a variety of approaches that weigh on both sides of the question. "
08/01/1989 - "The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of mouse leukocyte elastase (MLE) in the development of emphysema in 1-month-old Tsk mice. "
01/01/1989 - "With the lead provided by the deficiency state, studies aimed at the linkage between alpha 1AT and its target enzyme, neutrophil elastase, have provided useful information about the pathogenesis of emphysema due to cigarette smoking. "
01/01/1988 - "A study was made of the evolution of emphysema and airway injury induced in the lungs of male golden Syrian hamsters by a single intratracheal injection of 350 micrograms human neutrophil elastase (HNE). "
|5.||alpha 1-Antitrypsin (alpha 1 Antitrypsin)IBA
04/01/2015 - "The SPARTA trial is designed to evaluate the long-term (3-year) efficacy of 2 separate doses of Prolastin-C for the treatment of emphysema in patients with AATD. "
09/01/1997 - "In a randomized placebo-controlled study of alpha 1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy, 22 patients with moderate emphysema were followed for 2-4 years with an annual lung CT. "
06/01/1993 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of alveolar inflammatory cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from the lower respiratory tract of 17 smoking patients with or without emphysema to inactivate alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-Pl). "
02/01/1993 - "This hypothesis derives largely from studies in emphysema patients with genetic deficiency in serum alpha 1-antitrypsin. "
07/25/2015 - "Measurement of lung density with CT at TLC alone provides evidence that purified A1PI augmentation slows progression of emphysema, a finding that could not be substantiated by lung density measurement at FRC alone or by the two measurements combined. "
|6.||Tretinoin (Retinoic Acid)FDA LinkGeneric
09/01/2005 - "In separate experiments, female B6C3F1 mice and male A/J mice were exposed to CS for 32 weeks and 15 weeks, respectively, and were then used to test the efficacy of all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) treatments to ameliorate emphysema lesions. "
01/01/2007 - "This study used aerosol probes and lung function tests to investigate whether all trans retinoic acid (RA) can reverse experimental emphysema in dogs. "
01/01/2007 - "Aerosol probes of emphysema progression in dogs treated with all trans retinoic acid--an exploratory study."
03/01/2004 - "A study was undertaken using two murine models of emphysema to evaluate the effect of retinoic acid. "
11/01/2001 - "The current study, therefore, suggests that in addition to stimulating anabolic effects, retinoic acid may modulate proteolytic processes thought to contribute to tissue destruction in emphysema."
06/01/2015 - "Lobar segmentation provides improved characterization of cranio-caudal emphysema distribution compared to a non-anatomic approach in subjects up to GOLD stage II."
10/01/2009 - "In this study we demonstrate that MRI-based measurements of hyperpolarized (3)He diffusivity in human lungs yield quantitative information on the value and spatial distribution of lung parenchyma surface-to-volume ratio, number of alveoli per unit lung volume, mean linear intercept, and acinar airway radii-parameters that have been used by lung physiologists for decades and are accepted as gold standards for quantifying emphysema. "
11/01/2003 - "Landmark studies like NETT and the GOLD initiative are providing tool classify emphysema in the context of physiological criteria and possible therapeutic alternatives."
09/01/2015 - "The GOLD 0 group had worse quality of life (mean [SD] St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score, 17.0 [18.0] vs 3.8 [6.8] for the never smokers; P < .001) and a lower 6-minute walk distance, and 42.3% (127 of 300) of the GOLD 0 group had CT evidence of emphysema or airway thickening. "
06/01/2015 - "In subjects with GOLD III/IV the differences were not significant for all emphysema characteristics. "
|8.||Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor)IBA
01/01/1997 - "The study revealed focal pulmonary tissue rebuilding with emphysema-like changes twenty eight days following termination of TNF-alpha administration. "
08/01/2011 - "It is widely accepted that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of emphysema. "
03/01/2010 - "Based upon the strong synergistic action, a combination therapy directed against ROS and TNF-alpha could be a new approach to stop the progression in lung damage during emphysema."
12/01/2008 - "In addition, the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, MMP-7 and membrane type 1-metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) by fibroblasts of myofibroblastic foci was similar in emphysema/UIP and UIP alone patients. "
07/01/2006 - "After 6 months, no emphysema was observed in CS-exposed TNF-alpha R2 KO mice in contrast to WT and TNF-alpha R1 KO mice. "
|9.||Serine (L-Serine)FDA Link
07/15/2003 - "We recently reported that a synthetic serine elastase inhibitor, ZD0892, provided some protection against emphysema in a guinea pig model. "
04/01/2008 - "Inhibition of either serine or metalloproteases produces significant protection against emphysema, but inhibition is invariably accompanied by decreases in the inflammatory response to cigarette smoke, suggesting that these inhibitors do more than just prevent matrix degradation. "
07/15/2003 - "Serine elastase inhibitors have been proposed as a treatment for cigarette smoke-induced emphysema, but little is known about whether such agents actually are effective. "
10/01/2002 - "Synthetic serine elastase inhibitor reduces cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in guinea pigs."
10/01/2002 - "To test whether a serine elastase inhibitor could prevent or reduce emphysema, we exposed guinea pigs to cigarette smoke acutely, or daily for 6 months, and treated some animals with the neutrophil elastase inhibitor ZD0892. "
10/01/2010 - "While this therapy likely slows the rate of progression of emphysema and may improve survival in selected individuals with severe AAT deficiency, the gold standard for proof of efficacy is lacking. "
01/01/2013 - "Patients with end-stage emphysema because of α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency represent a challenging clinical management problem, and studies of volume reduction therapy to date have largely excluded these patients. "
01/01/2010 - "The overall results of the combined analysis of 2 separate trials of comparable design, and the only 2 controlled clinical trials completed to date, has confirmed that IV AAT augmentation therapy significantly reduces the decline in lung density and may therefore reduce the future risk of mortality in patients with AAT deficiency-related emphysema. "
12/01/2009 - "The EXACTLE study assessed the development of emphysema by means of CT densitometry in 77 patients with severe AAT deficiency over a period of 2.5 years. "
03/01/2001 - "A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of monthly replacement therapy over three years in 56 exsmokers with severe AAT deficiency and moderate emphysema showed a trend (P=0.07) favouring slower progression of emphysema by computed tomography scan in the group receiving AAT replacement. "
|1.||Pneumonectomy (Lung Volume Reduction)
07/01/2011 - "For lung volume reduction surgery, there have been new insights into the counterintuitive observation that lung function in severe emphysema can be improved by resecting the most diseased portions of the lungs. "
10/01/2003 - "Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has been shown to improve lung function, exercise performance, and quality of life in highly selected individuals with severe emphysema; however, major questions regarding the efficacy and long-term outcomes of LVRS still remain unanswered. "
01/01/2002 - "To investigate which of three types of CT imaging yielded the best results in estimating the degree of emphysema in patients undergoing evaluation for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), whether there was any difference in this regard between the cranial and caudal part of the lung, and whether the degree of emphysema had an impact on the estimation. "
08/01/1998 - "Lung volume reduction operation shows promise in relieving symptoms and improving function in highly selected patients with emphysema. "
04/01/1998 - "Lung volume reduction surgery for severe emphysema with removal of 20-30% of the most destroyed parts of the lung parenchyma has been reported to improve lung function substantially. "
04/01/2005 - "Lung transplantation in patients with emphysema offers good long-term survival, with significant improvement in functional status and low morbidity. "
10/01/2008 - "Single lung transplantation is effective for end-stage emphysema. "
06/01/2003 - "Single-lung transplantation for patients with end-stage emphysema is effective for long-term improvement of pulmonary function."
12/01/1998 - "LVRS is an effective and promising treatment option for selected patients with end-stage emphysema and could be offered as an alternative and / or bridge to lung transplantation."
04/01/2015 - "The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of mild PH (35 > mPAP ≥ 25 mmHg) on exercise capacity in patients with advanced emphysema, candidates for lung transplantation. "
|3.||Transplantation (Transplant Recipients)
01/01/1990 - "Although requiring a longer follow up, single transplantation is feasible and beneficial in patients with end-stage emphysema."
05/01/2008 - "However, the emphysematous change in emphysema + MSCs transplantation group was improved compared with the emphysema group. "
05/01/2001 - "Transplantation also benefited emphysema patients by Day 260. "
03/01/2005 - "Fifty-one right-handed subjects were recruited from 3 study groups (17 in each group): Group 1, lung transplant recipients (LTR); Group 2, subjects with advanced emphysema; and Group 3, healthy adult controls. "
09/01/1997 - "Seventeen patients undergoing LTX for end-stage emphysema and preserved RV function underwent serial electron beam computed tomography RV and LV function studies before, 3 months after, 1 year after, and 2 years after transplantation. "
10/01/1998 - "This study concludes that 1) LVRS seems to be beneficial for selected patients with end-stage emphysema; 2) postoperative morbidity and length of hospital stay are decreased in the VATS group; 3) long-term improvement in postoperative pulmonary function is not influenced by surgical approach; and 4) the overall charges and costs of the VATS approach is less than that of sternotomy."
04/01/1996 - "Lung reduction has been demonstrated to be a promising treatment for end-stage emphysema when performed on both lungs via sternotomy. "
01/01/2002 - "Fourteen patients, with predominant emphysema of upper lobes, were approached through a median sternotomy. "
10/01/1998 - "A total of 42 patients with severe emphysema underwent LVRS (19 via sternotomy and 23 via thoracoscopy). "
10/01/1997 - "We conclude that bilateral LVRS via median sternotomy in selected patients with severe, diffuse emphysema improves exercise performance and QOL at 3 months following LVRS and these improvements are maintained for at least 12 to 18 months in follow-up."
09/10/2011 - "The aim of the EASE (Exhale airway stents for emphysema) trial was to evaluate safety and efficacy of airway bypass in people with severe homogeneous emphysema. "
01/01/2013 - "Results from recently published Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trail (VENT) and Exhale Airway Stents for Emphysema (EASE) trial showed that treatment was substantially less effective and did not consistently reduce hyperinflation or improve lung function mostly likely due to collateral ventilation present in majority of patients. "
01/01/2011 - "In a recent report, authors describe their findings from the Exhale Airway Stents for Emphysema (EASE) trial. "
01/01/2011 - "Design of the exhale airway stents for emphysema (EASE) trial: an endoscopic procedure for reducing hyperinflation."
02/01/2014 - "Airway bypass stents target homogenous emphysema, whereas valves and thermal vapor ablation target heterogeneous emphysema. "