|1.||Parkinson Disease (Parkinson's Disease)
|2.||Movement Disorders (Movement Disorder)
|5.||Dystonic Disorders (Writer's Cramp)
|1.||Bhatia, Kailash P: 39 articles (10/2015 - 12/2004)|
|2.||Klein, Christine: 28 articles (01/2016 - 08/2002)|
|3.||Richter, Angelika: 26 articles (11/2014 - 05/2002)|
|4.||Krauss, Joachim K: 25 articles (05/2015 - 01/2002)|
|5.||Jankovic, Joseph: 23 articles (07/2015 - 06/2003)|
|6.||Vidailhet, Marie: 23 articles (06/2015 - 07/2002)|
|7.||Hallett, Mark: 20 articles (06/2015 - 01/2002)|
|8.||Okun, Michael S: 20 articles (01/2014 - 02/2005)|
|9.||Hamann, Melanie: 17 articles (11/2014 - 05/2002)|
|10.||Coubes, Philippe: 17 articles (07/2014 - 01/2002)|
|1.||Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum Toxin)IBA
07/01/2010 - "The best treatment for craniocervical dystonia is botulinum toxin injected into the overactive muscles."
12/01/2001 - "The therapy for OMD using botulinum toxin A has proved to be successful, the amount of improvement in this form of dystonia is, however, lower in comparison to other forms of mobility disorders in the head and neck region."
07/01/2000 - "Administration of medications used to treat dystonia was unsuccessful but botulinum toxin therapy was beneficial in all six treated cases."
06/01/2000 - "Recently use of botulinum toxin has provided beneficial response in hyper muscular contraction states such as dystonia and spasticity, Surgery and other non-medical therapies are effective in few situations."
04/01/1996 - "Botulinum toxin therapy was clearly beneficial in about two-thirds of those with primary upper limb dystonia, a condition affecting young adults (mean onset 32.9 years). "
|2.||Levodopa (L Dopa)FDA LinkGeneric
06/01/2015 - "Levodopa dramatically decreased dystonia and improved spatio-temporal, kinematic and posture parameters. "
06/01/2004 - "The dystonia improved dramatically with levodopa treatment in the absence of additional parkinsonian feature. "
01/01/2003 - "In most patients, this results not in predominating dystonia, a largely nondegenerative condition, but in a progressive often lethal neurometabolic disorder, which can be improved but not cured by L-dopa. "
03/01/2014 - "It seems that L-dopa could be effective in the treatment of dystonia due to VPS13A mutations."
04/01/2000 - "The improvement in LIDs may relate to the decrease in drug dosage, while the off-period dystonia is likely improved by the simultaneous administration of levodopa and STN stimulation. "
04/21/2003 - "Continuous intrathecal baclofen was effective in treating severe spasticity and dystonia of cerebral origin with major effect on muscles of the lower extremities, pelvis, and back and in particular opisthotonus was relieved. "
01/01/2015 - "Treatment of severe spasticity and dystonia with intrathecal baclofen (ITB) in children has been shown to be effective and has therefore been employed in the Region of Southern Denmark. "
02/01/1999 - "Chronic intrathecal baclofen therapy via pump has been effective in this case and should be considered as a treatment modality in carefully selected patients with dystonia."
01/01/1992 - "Baclofen can be an effective treatment for childhood dystonia."
01/01/1998 - "Intrathecal baclofen infusion is a promising treatment option for generalized dystonia associated with CP. "
|4.||Trihexyphenidyl (Artane)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/1992 - "The action dystonia was markedly improved by giving trihexyphenidyl. "
02/01/1986 - "Thirty-seven per cent of the 35 idiopathic dystonia patients had a moderate to marked improvement with an average dosage of 21.5 mg of trihexyphenidyl. "
07/01/2011 - "The author hypothesized that trihexyphenidyl may be more effective in specific subgroups and performed a retrospective analysis of 31 children (8.2 ± 5.8 years) with dystonia following treatment with high-dose trihexyphenidyl (>0.5 mg/kg/day). "
09/01/1996 - "Response to medical treatment (trihexyphenidyl dose as high as 40 mg daily) in 5 patients was disappointing; 4 of the 5 patients who underwent functional stereotaxic operations were improved, but dystonia was still present at the end of the follow-up. "
08/01/1999 - "The symptoms abated under therapy with trihexyphenidyl-HCL, so that the patient has been able to work as a tennis coach with improved athletic performance for the past 3 yr. It is concluded that the various forms of dystonia should be included in the differential diagnosis of impaired coordinative movements under athletic exercise, especially of the upper extremities."
|5.||onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox)FDA Link
01/01/2012 - "The aim of this study was to examine whether multichannel electromyogaphic mapping improved outcomes in a cohort of antibody-negative onabotulinumtoxinA non-responders by more precisely identifying which muscles were involved in the dystonia. "
01/01/2015 - "Use of onabotulinumtoxinA in post-traumatic oromandibular dystonia."
09/01/2009 - "Botox has emerged as the most effective form of symptomatic treatment for abnormabilities in muscle movement, namely dystonia with oromandibular symptoms."
08/01/2007 - "Bach, botox, and butterflies: toward an awareness of musician's dystonia."
08/01/2006 - "Frozen versus fresh reconstituted botox for laryngeal dystonia."
|6.||Antipsychotic Agents (Antipsychotics)IBA
11/01/2012 - "The incidence of dystonia is 2-3% among the patients treated with antipsychotics, and 50% among the ones cured with conventional antipsychotics. "
11/01/1988 - "In a study of 135 schizophrenic and 46 manic male patients treated with neuroleptics, a significantly higher proportion of the manic patients (26.1%) than of the schizophrenic patients (5.9%) developed acute dystonia. "
01/01/1986 - "In view of the close similarity between dystonia in man and other primates, studies on the mechanisms whereby neuroleptic drugs cause acute dystonic reactions in monkeys may give some clues to the pathogenesis of spontaneous dystonia in man."
10/01/2015 - "Acute Laryngeal Dystonia With Novel Antipsychotics: A Case Report and Review of Literature."
09/01/2015 - "In its original description, Pisa syndrome was reported as an iatrogenic dystonia of the trunk caused by neuroleptic drugs. "
|7.||Type A Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum A Toxin)FDA Link
05/01/1989 - "Jaw dystonia was therefore considered and Botulinum A toxin was injected into the right masseter and temporalis which dramatically improved the patient's condition."
04/22/2014 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Botulinum toxin-type A therapy in khat chewer Yemeni patients with oromandibular dystonia. "
01/01/2003 - "The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of Botulinum Toxin type A treatment in patients with oromandibular dystonia with estimation of nutrition status. "
11/01/2015 - "To conduct a systematic review of the impact of different injection-guiding techniques on the effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) for the treatment of focal spasticity and dystonia. "
04/01/2015 - "Paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia managed using chemodenervation including alcohol neurolysis and botulinum toxin type a injection: a case report."
|8.||Haloperidol (Haldol)FDA LinkGeneric
10/05/1993 - "Haloperidol, 0.5 mg/kg i.p., significantly reduced the severity of dystonia without marked sedation. "
01/01/2012 - "Acute dystonia for those allocated haloperidol alone was too common for the trial to continue beyond the interim analysis (RR 19.48, CI 1.14 to 331.92). "
01/15/2011 - "We here report that age and sex were associated with dystonia during the early phases of treatment (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.008 respectively), but are overall poor predictors of the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores' variation over time (first month of treatment) in a sample of 60 acutely ill haloperidol treated psychotic patients. "
01/01/2008 - "We discus the case of a forty-nine year old patient with haloperidol induced laryngeal dystonia (LD). "
01/01/2008 - "A patient with haloperidol induced laryngeal dystonia."
|9.||Clozapine (Clozaril)FDA LinkGeneric
09/01/1992 - "It is sometimes difficult to indicate if the improvement in negative symptoms is independent of the improvement in positive symptoms; the patient's request and his feeling (including tolerability) are another decisional factor; because of the lack of dystonia and other extrapyramidal side effects, some patients are more compliant under clozapine therapy; the side effect (hematologic, cardiovascular, hepatic and central nervous systems) lead to discontinuation of clozapine treatment when severe. "
03/01/2004 - "Clozapine is a dibenzodiazepin derivative atypical neuroleptic that has been reported to be effective in the treatment of primary or symptomatic dystonia. "
07/01/1999 - "We studied the efficacy of clozapine for severe dystonia in five patients in an open trial. "
07/01/1999 - "An open trial of clozapine for dystonia."
01/01/2015 - "Before administration of clozapine, the patient was experiencing severe dystonia as assessed by the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale. "
03/01/1995 - "Remission in dihydroxyphenylalanine-responsive dystonia."
06/15/2011 - "We interrogated the complete genome sequences of a 14-year-old fraternal twin pair diagnosed with dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)-responsive dystonia (DRD; Mendelian Inheritance in Man #128230). "
06/05/2010 - "High frequency of multiexonic deletion of the GCH1 gene in a Taiwanese cohort of dopa-response dystonia."
03/01/2005 - "The combination of symptoms, their sensitivity to DOPA, and their persistence throughout childhood constitute, to our knowledge, a new clinical entity, which we propose to categorize as a DOPA-sensitive dystonia-plus syndrome."
03/01/2005 - "DOPA-sensitive dystonia-plus syndrome."
|1.||Deep Brain Stimulation
11/01/2013 - "Deep brain stimulation (DBS), specifically of the globus pallidus interna (GPi), has been shown to be extremely effective in primary generalized dystonia. "
07/01/2008 - "Pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently the most effective treatment for advanced, medically refractory dystonia. "
10/15/2007 - "Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is a highly effective treatment for idiopathic generalized dystonia, however less is known about the effect of GPi DBS on ICCD. "
06/01/2007 - "In recent years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of globus pallidus internus (GPi) has emerged as an effective treatment for dystonia, particularly patients with primary generalized dystonia, where remarkable improvement may occur. "
11/01/2006 - "For example, generalized dystonia involving whole the body and resulting in bed-ridden state can be dramatically improved with stereotactic chronic deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidum interna. "
05/01/2014 - "Laryngeal dystonia has been treated successfully with botulinum neurotoxin (BTX) injections since 1984. "
09/01/1998 - "We confirm that the botuline toxin transcutaneous injections represent a save and effective treatment for laryngeal adductor dystonia."
12/01/2012 - "A comparison of facial muscle squeezing versus non-facial muscle squeezing on the efficacy of botulinumtoxin-A injections for the treatment of facial dystonia."
02/01/2011 - "The objective of this study was to investigate quality-of-life outcomes in patients with jaw-opening oromandibular dystonia who had received treatment with botulinum neurotoxin injections. "
12/01/2000 - "Of the 102 patients initially identified, the first 30 from each site who met the study inclusion criteria were assessed for (1) age and sex; (2) severity of dystonia; (3) years of BTX-A use; (4) dates of first, second, third, and fourth BTX-A injections; (5) drug dose; (6) use of electromyography; (7) use of other prescribed therapies; (8) laboratory tests; and (9) adverse events. "
07/01/1998 - "We conclude that pallidotomy is a safe and effective treatment in medically refractory cases of generalized dystonia."
07/01/1998 - "We systematically evaluated the efficacy of both unilateral and bilateral stereotactic pallidotomy in eight patients with generalized dystonia. "
01/01/2011 - "The authors of the present study have acquired relatively good clinical results, even in patients who previously received bilateral thalamotomy and unilateral pallidotomy for DYT1+ primary generalized dystonia."
04/01/2001 - "Recent study has revealed that bilateral posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP) significantly improve dystonic movements and improve motor function of those patients with generalized dystonia (GD). "
04/01/2001 - "In this study, we compare our results using thalamotomy and pallidotomy to treat patients with different forms of dystonia, and we discuss our results in the context of other published series. "
01/01/2002 - "However, there is today enough promising evidence for a striking efficacy of pallidal stimulation in dystonia, supporting the need for further investigations in the field, with collaborative projects (regarding to the limited number of eligible patients); double-blind studies, including a consensus about surgical method; and a precise anatomic analysis of the position of the electrode. "
08/01/2009 - "Predictors of a favourable long-term efficacy of DBS in primary generalized dystonia patients are young age at surgery, a shorter duration of the disease, a lower severity of disability, and a posteroventrolateral localization of the DBS electrode within the globus pallidus internus (GPi). "
07/01/2009 - "The described technique using stereotactic MRI for planning of the trajectory and direct visualisation of the target, intra-operative MER for delineating the boundaries of the target and macrostimulation for probing the distance to the internal capsule by identifying the threshold for stimulation induced tetanic contractions is effective in DBS electrode implantation in patients with dystonia operated under general anaesthesia. "
05/01/2013 - "Decreased efficacy of pallidal DBS in secondary and NBIA associated dystonia is unlikely to be related to difficulties in achieving the planned electrode placement."
07/30/2009 - "10 of 11 PD and 8 of 9 dystonia cases who benefited from electrode implantation also showed improvement in all motor and disability scores after 6 months of DBS of the GPi. "
09/01/2007 - "Dystonia, rigidity, and retching disappeared soon after treatment. "
08/14/2007 - "The Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS) served as the primary measure of symptom severity at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. "
10/01/2011 - "Therefore, we attempted to control dystonia through DBS initially and perform orthopedic surgery to correct musculoskeletal deformities after treatment of dystonia. "
08/01/2011 - "The examination quantified how the involuntary movements or other symptoms with dystonia changed before and after treatments."
11/01/1978 - "Central hemodynamics was studied by means of echocardiography in 7 patients suffering from neurocirculatory dystonia with a high cardiac index but normal arterial pressure, and in 41 patients with essential hypertension prior to, and after treatment. "