Dystonia (Limb Dystonia)

An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)
Also Known As:
Limb Dystonia; Dystonia, Diurnal; Dystonia, Limb; Dystonia, Paroxysmal; Diurnal Dystonia; Dystonia, Muscle; Paroxysmal Dystonia; Muscle Dystonia
Networked: 3285 relevant articles (334 outcomes, 253 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Parkinson Disease (Parkinson's Disease)
2. Movement Disorders (Movement Disorder)
3. Pain (Aches)
4. Dyskinesias (Dyskinesia)
5. Dystonic Disorders (Writer's Cramp)


1. Bhatia, Kailash P: 39 articles (10/2015 - 12/2004)
2. Klein, Christine: 28 articles (01/2016 - 08/2002)
3. Richter, Angelika: 26 articles (11/2014 - 05/2002)
4. Krauss, Joachim K: 25 articles (05/2015 - 01/2002)
5. Jankovic, Joseph: 23 articles (07/2015 - 06/2003)
6. Vidailhet, Marie: 23 articles (06/2015 - 07/2002)
7. Hallett, Mark: 20 articles (06/2015 - 01/2002)
8. Okun, Michael S: 20 articles (01/2014 - 02/2005)
9. Hamann, Melanie: 17 articles (11/2014 - 05/2002)
10. Coubes, Philippe: 17 articles (07/2014 - 01/2002)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Dystonia:
1. Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum Toxin)IBA
2. Levodopa (L Dopa)FDA LinkGeneric
3. BaclofenFDA LinkGeneric
4. Trihexyphenidyl (Artane)FDA LinkGeneric
5. onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox)FDA Link
6. Antipsychotic Agents (Antipsychotics)IBA
7. Type A Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum A Toxin)FDA Link
8. Haloperidol (Haldol)FDA LinkGeneric
9. Clozapine (Clozaril)FDA LinkGeneric
10. Dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa)IBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Deep Brain Stimulation
2. Injections
3. Pallidotomy
4. Electrodes (Electrode)
01/01/2002 - "However, there is today enough promising evidence for a striking efficacy of pallidal stimulation in dystonia, supporting the need for further investigations in the field, with collaborative projects (regarding to the limited number of eligible patients); double-blind studies, including a consensus about surgical method; and a precise anatomic analysis of the position of the electrode. "
08/01/2009 - "Predictors of a favourable long-term efficacy of DBS in primary generalized dystonia patients are young age at surgery, a shorter duration of the disease, a lower severity of disability, and a posteroventrolateral localization of the DBS electrode within the globus pallidus internus (GPi). "
07/01/2009 - "The described technique using stereotactic MRI for planning of the trajectory and direct visualisation of the target, intra-operative MER for delineating the boundaries of the target and macrostimulation for probing the distance to the internal capsule by identifying the threshold for stimulation induced tetanic contractions is effective in DBS electrode implantation in patients with dystonia operated under general anaesthesia. "
05/01/2013 - "Decreased efficacy of pallidal DBS in secondary and NBIA associated dystonia is unlikely to be related to difficulties in achieving the planned electrode placement."
07/30/2009 - "10 of 11 PD and 8 of 9 dystonia cases who benefited from electrode implantation also showed improvement in all motor and disability scores after 6 months of DBS of the GPi. "
5. Aftercare (After-Treatment)