|3.||Pleural Effusion (Pleural Effusions)
|5.||Sudden Infant Death (SID)
|1.||Maeda, Hitoshi: 26 articles (11/2015 - 03/2002)|
|2.||Ishikawa, Takaki: 22 articles (11/2015 - 03/2005)|
|3.||Michiue, Tomomi: 22 articles (11/2015 - 03/2005)|
|4.||Zhu, Bao-Li: 17 articles (06/2012 - 03/2002)|
|5.||Quan, Li: 13 articles (11/2014 - 03/2002)|
|6.||Li, Dong-Ri: 12 articles (01/2008 - 03/2002)|
|7.||Zhao, Dong: 11 articles (01/2008 - 05/2005)|
|8.||Oritani, Shigeki: 9 articles (05/2015 - 03/2003)|
|9.||Bierens, Joost J L M: 5 articles (11/2013 - 04/2010)|
|10.||Tsuda, Kohei: 5 articles (09/2007 - 03/2003)|
01/01/2008 - "The aims of this study were to confirm the diagnostic value of strontium in cases of drowning compared with other causes of death, to analyse factors that could affect its concentration and to ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of strontium in right and left ventricles and peripheral serum for the post-mortem diagnosis of drowning. "
05/24/2007 - "This study examines the effects of age, gender, a cold water medium versus warm water medium, and salinity on strontium levels determined in left ventricular blood in drownings. "
07/01/1998 - "The aim of our study was to examine the combined contribution of computer-assisted histomorphometry of lungs with blood strontium (BS) measurement to the diagnosis of drowning in cadavers recovered from fresh water. "
07/01/2015 - "Strontium (Sr) concentration in tooth samples has been found to be a key factor for the diagnosis of seawater drowning. "
01/01/2008 - "Strontium (Sr) levels were measured in the serum (left and right ventricles and peripheral vein) of all cadavers and, in the case of drowning, in the water medium itself, by using Zeeman AAS. "
|2.||Biological Markers (Surrogate Marker)IBA
03/01/2014 - "Sugimura proposed a threshold value of 14.1 for the Drowning Index (DI), the ratio of lung and pleural fluid to spleen weight, as a surrogate marker to diagnose drowning. "
03/01/2003 - "These findings suggested the usefulness of serum markers in the investigation of death from drownings."
03/01/2003 - "Possible postmortem serum markers for differentiation between fresh-, saltwater drowning and acute cardiac death: a preliminary investigation."
01/01/2008 - "In this series, mechanical asphyxiation, drowning, and sudden cardiac death cases (n = 56, n = 43, and n = 212, respectively) usually showed low levels within postmortem reference ranges for these serum markers, although UN and CRP levels were mildly elevated in cases of sudden cardiac death and cerebrovascular stroke. "
09/01/2015 - "These cardiac biomarkers showed cause-of-death- and postmortem-time-dependent differences: blood and PCF levels of each marker were higher in hyperthermia (heatstroke), bathwater drowning and chronic congestive heart disease in cases of postmortem interval (PMI) <12h. "
|3.||DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA
04/07/2008 - "Plankton DNA was identified from lung, liver, kidney, blood and brain of the drowned victims, and the DGGE patterns were helpful in indicating the site of drowning. "
11/01/2009 - "In this study, from the preserved blood samples of 32 freshwater drowning cases, specific DNA fragments of Aeromonas sobria, one of the most common aquatic bacteria, were examined using PCR. "
07/01/2010 - "We developed a direct and rapid method for the diagnosis of death by drowning by PCR amplification of phytoplankton DNA using human tissues. "
11/01/2009 - "Two key issues are the small amount of information contained in a pattern compared to the large promoter regions and the repetitive characteristics of genomic DNA, which both lead to "pattern drowning". "
04/01/2009 - "We have developed a sensitive and specific PCR method for detecting plankton DNA in cases of death by drowning. "
|4.||Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
04/29/2001 - "After drowning lesson from the first part of this study, there was significant decrease in the rate of lack of serologic diagnosis and in the amount of consumption of antibiotics for this indication in the hospital, but there was no change at the level of G. "
03/01/2012 - "When treating drowning associated pneumonia, antibiotics should be effective against bacteria similar to those found in the body of water where immersion occurred."
|5.||Trace Elements (Biometals)IBA
01/10/2012 - "The aim of our study was to analyse several serum biochemical markers in order to evaluate the discriminant capacity of trace elements individually and jointly in drowning (seawater drowning and freshwater drowning) and their correlation with age, sex, postmortem interval, time in water and concentrations of the trace elements in the drowning medium. "
01/10/2012 - "Serum biochemical markers in drowning: diagnostic efficacy of Strontium and other trace elements."
01/01/2015 - "We report the case of a 3.5-year-old boy who died 11h after drowning in sea water, with a serum sodium level of 178 mmoL/L. "
12/01/2013 - "For chloride 29 high values contributed to 4 cases--3 drowning and 1 heat-related, but these were all previously identified by a high sodium level. "
06/01/2013 - "This demonstrated a statistically significant elevation (P<0.01) in postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride (PMVSC) levels and sum of sodium and chloride levels in 15 cases of deaths due to saltwater drowning (SWD) in comparison with 7 immersion deaths not related to drowning but recovered from saltwater (DNRD), and with 50 case controls. "
06/01/2013 - "Elevated postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride levels distinguish saltwater drowning (SWD) deaths from immersion deaths not related to drowning but recovered from saltwater (DNRD)."
04/01/2006 - "In addition, the mean sodium level of 117 mmol/L in freshwater drowning was significantly lower than the standard range of 137-145 mmol/L. "
08/01/2009 - "The concentration of potassium ions and total protein showed no difference between each group, although they increased in proportion to the postmortem interval in cases of both seawater and freshwater drowning. "
03/01/2005 - "The concentrations of sodium and chloride ions in the pleural effusion of rats that drowned in seawater were significantly greater than those of rats that drowned in freshwater at both 1 day and 3 days after drowning. "
08/01/2009 - "The concentrations of sodium and chloride ions in pleural effusion showed a significant difference between seawater drowning and freshwater drowning. "
03/01/2005 - "The concentration of potassium ions in pleural effusion 1 day after drowning showed no difference between each group, although it then increased from 1 to 3 days after seawater drowning, whereas it decreased from 1 to 3 days after freshwater drowning. "
12/10/2013 - "Although electrolyte analysis of pleural effusion at autopsy is useful for the diagnosis of water aspiration (i.e., drowning), the method of comparing each level of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), and chloride (Cl(-)) ions does not clearly differentiate between freshwater drowning, seawater drowning, and non-drowning. "
|9.||Ribosomal DNA (rDNA)IBA
01/01/2000 - "In this study, we attempted to use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from picoplankton for the diagnosis of death by drowning. "
01/01/1996 - "In this study we attempted to use picoplankton for the diagnosis of drowning by PCR analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). "
08/01/2015 - "To establish a method for amplifying specific 16S rDNA fragment of algae related with drowning and test its value in drowning diagnosis. "
08/01/2015 - "[Value of specific 16S rDNA fragment of algae in diagnosis of drowning: an experiment with rabbits]."
07/01/2010 - "The specific 16S rDNA fragment was identified from the standard picoplankton Euglena gracilis, the tissues of bodies died from drowning and water samples from the drowning scenes. "
|10.||tranilast (N 5')IBA
07/01/2006 - "Were used 15 male adult rats Wistar EPM-1, weight 360g (SD=21,3), randomized in three groups: G1--Control; G2--Fresh water; G3--Salty water, each one with n=5. The animals have been anesthetized and tracheostomized to insert a cannula inside the trachea, for drowning induction. "
12/01/1999 - "Drownings occurred in home swimming pools (N = 10); baths (N = 9); waterways (i.e., rivers, irrigation ditches, sea; N = 5); buckets, bins, sinks (N = 4); and fish ponds (N = 3). "
08/01/2015 - "Thirty-five rabbits were randomly divided into 3 the drowning group (n=15), postmortem water immersion group (n=15, subjected to air embolism before seawater immersion), and control group(n=5, with air embolism only). "
03/01/2003 - "In the reference groups (asphyxiation and drowning), the hemorrhages were frequently observed in ligature strangulation (n=10/15), manual strangulation (n=5/7) and traumatic asphyxia (n=4/5). "
05/01/2015 - "Causes of death were drowning (n = 8), trauma (n = 5), hypothermia (n = 2), and debilitation possibly due to fatigue (n = 1) or were unknown (n = 3). "
|1.||Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
01/01/2013 - "This population-based retrospective case series study examined the frequency and distribution of protective stratagems (legislatively compliant safety barrier, adequate caregiver supervision, water familiarisation and early administration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR]) amongst drowning deaths of young children (0-4 years) in private swimming pools or spas in Victoria, Australia. "
08/01/2009 - "We designed a retrospective observational study to analyse all drowning patients admitted to our ICU after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. "
08/01/2015 - "Age, sex, cause, time of drowning, season, mechanism, cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance, body temperature, alcohol ingestion, history of previous suicide attempts, outcome, and other characteristics were collected. "
01/01/2015 - "While drowning is frequent, there are no lay persons trained in cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rural Bangladesh. "
07/01/2014 - "Future initiatives should focus on strategies to improve supervision in targeted locations and greater emphasis on bystander-initiated CPR, both of which may reduce drowning mortality."
04/01/2010 - "Bystander rescue and resuscitation of drowning victims seems to contribute to a positive outcome. "
06/01/2009 - "This, coupled with increased emphasis in improvement in water safety and resuscitation, has produced a threefold decrease in the number of deaths, indexed to population, from drowning in the United States yearly. "
07/01/2009 - "We report on the largest single-center study of the Utstein Style resuscitation for drowning. "
01/01/1965 - "[Experimental study on the mechanism of fresh water drowning and trials of resuscitation]."
05/01/2015 - "This issue discusses the initial resuscitation and treatment of adult drowning patients in the emergency department. "
|3.||Cardiopulmonary Bypass (Heart-Lung Bypass)
05/01/1992 - "Is cardiopulmonary bypass effective for treatment of hypothermic arrest due to drowning or exposure?"
03/01/2004 - "Cardiopulmonary bypass has often been applied to revive victims of cold water drowning. "
10/01/2007 - "Outcome of 12 drowned children with attempted resuscitation on cardiopulmonary bypass: an analysis of variables based on the "Utstein Style for Drowning"."
09/01/1984 - "In intractable cases of cardiac arrest, particularly after prolonged arrest times or cold water drowning, cardiopulmonary bypass appears promising. "
11/01/2010 - "There is a lack of data on the outcome of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) rewarming of hypothermic children with cardiac arrest following drowning. "
|4.||Positive-Pressure Respiration (PEEP)
06/01/2001 - "Although positive pressure ventilation using bellows was first used for drowning victims in the 1700s, there were soon concerns that such therapy could in fact be harmful to the lungs. "
01/01/1977 - "Respiratory distress syndrome caused by near- or secondary drowning and treatment by positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation."
01/01/1988 - "The person was sustained by continuous positive-pressure respiration and died 2 days after resuscitation from drowning. "
02/01/1975 - "The last 2 cases of 'near-drowning' with fresh water aspiration developed, 100 min and 50 min respectively after the drowning accident, fulminant pulmonary oedema, which could be cured after application of PEEP in Engstroöm-IPPB in one case. "
|5.||Protective Devices (Safety Device)
03/26/2003 - "Bath seats are not intended or marketed as safety devices, and analysis of the existing, albeit limited, data suggests that they either have no effect or they may provide some slight unexplained protection against unintentional bathtub drowning risks (with an odds ratio for the risk of drowning with a bath seat vs without a bath seat of approximately 0.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9]). "
01/01/2012 - "There are several well-established risk factors for injury in this setting, including lack of safety features on farm vehicles and machinery, and a lack of passive safety devices that offer protection from falls and drowning events. "