|1.||Cryptorchidism (Undescended Testes)
|3.||Testicular Neoplasms (Testicular Cancer)
|1.||Skakkebaek, Niels E: 23 articles (01/2016 - 01/2002)|
|2.||Toppari, Jorma: 23 articles (01/2016 - 01/2002)|
|3.||Virtanen, Helena E: 15 articles (12/2015 - 02/2006)|
|4.||Kohri, Kenjiro: 15 articles (04/2014 - 12/2005)|
|5.||Agoulnik, Alexander I: 15 articles (05/2013 - 11/2004)|
|6.||Main, Katharina M: 14 articles (01/2015 - 01/2002)|
|7.||Hayashi, Yutaro: 14 articles (04/2014 - 12/2005)|
|8.||Mizuno, Kentaro: 14 articles (04/2014 - 12/2005)|
|9.||Kojima, Yoshiyuki: 14 articles (04/2014 - 12/2005)|
|10.||Skakkebaek, N E: 12 articles (02/2013 - 05/2001)|
|1.||Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)FDA Link
09/01/1995 - "In conclusion, LHRH is effective in the treatment of cryptorchidism, and hCG is more effective than placebo, but data about the effect are scanty."
06/01/2009 - "The results of our study have shown that neoadjuvant GnRH treatment improves the fertility index in prepubertal cryptorchidism and, consequently, should improve fertility in adulthood."
06/01/2009 - "To investigate, in a prospectively randomized trial, whether preoperative gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) therapy improves the fertility index in primary cryptorchidism. "
06/01/2009 - "Neoadjuvant gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy before surgery and effect on fertility index in unilateral undescended testes: a prospective randomized trial."
03/01/2005 - "In a prospectively randomized trial we investigated whether preoperative GNRH therapy improves the fertility index in primary cryptorchidism. "
|2.||Chorionic Gonadotropin (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)FDA LinkGeneric
06/01/2003 - "We prospectively evaluated the efficacy of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in the treatment of undescended testis and sought to determine whether HCG assists in the differentiation of undescended testis from retractile testis. "
03/01/2000 - "We evaluated the role of a patent processus vaginalis for cryptorchidism as well as inguinal herniography as a predictor of the efficacy of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) treatment. "
07/01/2006 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of low-dose hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) (500 IU/week for 3 weeks) in the treatment of cryptorchidism and in the assessment of Leydig cell functions. "
04/03/2006 - "In a recent study, the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in the treatment of children with cryptorchidism aged less than four years was questioned. "
01/01/1988 - "Two schedules of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration were compared in a study of 332 boys (473 testes) aged 1-13 years with cryptorchidism. "
06/01/2010 - "We performed a critical appraisal of the key papers in the world literature to evaluate the level of evidence for improved fertility indices, semen analysis and paternity rates following hormone therapy in undescended testes. "
08/01/2014 - "In studies of the orl fetal rat, one of several reported strains with inherited cryptorchidism, we studied hormone levels, gene expression in intact and hormone-stimulated gubernaculum, and imaging of the developing cremaster muscle facilitated by a tissue clearing protocol to further characterize development of the orl gubernaculum. "
06/01/2013 - "The objective of this study was to assess effectiveness of hormone therapy or surgery for cryptorchidism. "
01/01/2012 - "The aim of this study was to determine the serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels) in a group of boys with cryptorchidism before and 1 year after surgery. "
10/01/1996 - "Synthetic hormone-disrupting chemicals may play a role in the increased frequency of cryptorchidism observed in some studies. "
|4.||Testosterone (Sustanon)FDA Link
11/01/1981 - "At 7, 14 and 21 days after cryptorchidism, an enhanced testosterone response was observed and the size of the Leydig cells was significantly greater than that of the controls, which indicated increased secretory activity by the cryptorchid testis. "
01/01/1989 - "A greater incidence of spontaneous remission of the cryptorchidism was found in those subjects with: 1) testosterone plasma levels overlapping the neonatal range; 2) testicles placed in proximity to the external orifice of the inguinal tunnel. "
02/01/2015 - "To study the endocrine context at birth as a reflection of late pregnancy in isolated idiopathic cryptorchidism and to analyse the possible disruptions of INSL3 and/or testosterone. "
06/01/2001 - "This study concluded that spontaneous descent of palpable undescended testes is closely related to the presence of LH and testosterone surge. "
09/01/1999 - "A model that may potentially assist in the clarification of androgen-mediated effects on mood is the study of cryptorchid men who may grow up with varying degrees of testosterone deficiency depending on the time in their life when cryptorchism is corrected. "
05/01/1997 - "We investigated the efficacy of early gonadotropin treatment of cryptorchidism for promoting testicular descent and ameliorating testicular histology. "
04/15/2007 - "This high gonadotropin drive may compensate for mild Leydig cell dysfunction in cryptorchidism."
04/01/2006 - "Eight adult IHH patients with prepubertal testes (<4 ml), with no previous gonadotropin therapy and with no history of cryptorchidism underwent open bilateral testicular biopsy prior to the initiation of hormonal treatment. "
02/01/2001 - "An increased rate of cryptorchidism, increased gonadotropin levels and genetic instability are possible pathways. "
06/01/1996 - "Semen quality and gonadotropin levels in patients operated upon for cryptorchidism."
|6.||DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA
01/01/2003 - "In the present study, genomic DNA was obtained from 150 patients with idiopathic cryptorchidism. "
09/01/2013 - "After intracytoplasmic sperm injection, the fertilization and blastocyst development rates were significantly lower in the cryptorchidism group; however, about one quarter of the embryos arising from DNA-damaged sperm continued to develop. "
09/01/2013 - "To investigate the effects of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage on fertilization and embryo development using a mouse cryptorchidism model of sperm DNA damage induction. "
09/01/2013 - "Evaluation of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and effects on embryo development using a mouse cryptorchidism model."
01/01/2004 - "Genomic DNA was extracted from 18 patients with cryptorchidism (age 7-44 years; unilateral n = 13; no familial cases) and 28 healthy controls (age 9-39 years). "
10/01/1987 - "A significant increase in the number of germ cells was observed in patients with unilateral and those with bilateral cryptorchidism, indicating that 6 months of buserelin therapy improved the fertility status even when testes were in an undescended position during treatment."
08/01/1992 - "The study was double blind, placebo controlled in which patients with cryptorchidism were assigned randomly into 3 groups: buserelin treatment (22), surgical treatment (18) or placebo control group (19). "
08/01/1992 - "Buserelin treatment of cryptorchidism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study."
01/01/1987 - "In a collaborative study, 48 prepubertal boys with undescended testes ranging in age from 15 months to 11 years were treated with low-dose intranasal buserelin following an every-other-day programme for a period of 6 months. "
10/01/1987 - "We studied 48 prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism between 1 year 3 months and 11 years old who were treated with buserelin every other day for 6 months. "
07/01/2003 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a history of cryptorchidism on serum inhibin B levels and other markers of spermatogenesis in subfertile men. "
05/01/2015 - "Serum inhibin B values were above the normal median in 43% of boys previously operated on for unilateral cryptorchidism, compared to 17% at surgery (p = 0.0003). "
05/01/2015 - "Serum inhibin B levels in boys with unilateral vanished testis were not different from those with unilateral cryptorchidism. "
05/01/2015 - "We evaluated whether serum inhibin B levels differed between boys with unilateral vanished testis and those with unilateral cryptorchidism. "
05/01/2015 - "Serum inhibin B values in boys with unilateral vanished testis or unilateral cryptorchidism."
|9.||Androgen Receptors (Androgen Receptor)IBA
01/01/2007 - "Although further studies are needed to elucidate the possible role of specific CAG/GGC combinations as a susceptible factor, our data suggested the possible association between polyglycin tract polymorphism in androgen receptor gene and cryptorchidism."
03/01/2005 - "Although further studies are needed to elucidate the possible role of specific CAG/GGC combinations as a causative factor, these data suggest a possible association between androgen receptor gene polymorphisms and cryptorchidism."
06/01/1986 - "The demonstration that testicular androgen receptors can be reduced by cryptorchidism suggests that further studies may indicate the role of receptor binding in testicular function."
06/01/1986 - "As an initial approach to the study of seminiferous tubule androgen receptors in disordered spermatogenesis, cytosol androgen receptors were studied in rats with experimental cryptorchidism. "
04/01/2015 - "Postnatal germ cell development during mini-puberty in the mouse does not require androgen receptor: implications for managing cryptorchidism."
|10.||Growth Hormone (Somatotropin)IBA
01/01/1980 - "In a 4 1/2 year old blind boy with cryptorchidism and severe growth retardation a deficiency of growth hormone was verified. "
07/01/2004 - "Stratton and Parker  described a 17-month-old boy with the previously unreported combination of growth hormone (GH) deficiency, Wormian bones, mild developmental delay, brachycamptodactyly, heart defects, kidney hypoplasia, imperforate anus, bilateral cryptorchidism, and facial anomalies. "
04/01/2003 - "An 8.7 year-old boy with cryptorchidism and growth hormone (GH) deficiency due to septooptic dysplasia presented testicular descent related to the commencement of hGH treatment. "
12/01/2014 - "We report a case of Costello syndrome with hypothyroidism, cryptorchidism and growth hormone deficiency and we evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of growth hormone replacement therapy. "
02/01/1989 - "We report on a 17-month-old boy with Wormian bones, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, developmental delay, brachycamptodactyly, dextrocardia, cryptorchidism, midshaft hypospadias, hypoplastic left kidney, and imperforate anus. "
11/01/2015 - "Based on recent knowledge of germ cell development, it is believed that the best treatment for undescended testis is orchiopexy between 6th and 12th month of life. "
10/01/2013 - "Single-stage laparoscopic orchiopexy for low level undescended testis has very good results. "
02/01/2004 - "However, efficient revascularization stemming from the superficial epigastric artery of the fasciovascular flap was found in group 5. The testicular biopsy scores of groups 2 and 5 were significantly greater than those of groups 3 and 4. The results of the present study demonstrate that the fasciovascular flap as a vascular carrier revascularizes the testis through spermatic vessels after delayed division and provides an adjuvant treatment modality or first-stage procedure in a salvage operation for high-undescended testis during staged orchiopexy."
06/01/2009 - "Germ cell development postnatally is disturbed in congenital cryptorchidism, but our current understanding of germ cell biology suggests that early orchidopexy, around 6 months of age, should provide a significant improvement in prognosis compared with a previous generation. "
05/24/1997 - "Risk was significantly raised in testes that had had biopsy samples removed during orchidopexy (relative risk = 66.7 (23.9 to 143.3) compared with a testis in a man in the general population) and was significantly greater in these testes than in undescended testes that had not had biopsy samples taken at orchidopexy (6.7 (2.7 to 13.5)). "
10/01/2005 - "This study was performed on four normal testes obtained from adult cadavers and the undescended testes taken from men undergoing unilateral orchiectomy. "
10/01/2002 - "Only men who had been successful at or attempted paternity for whom we had complete data were included in the study from the entire cohort of 584 men with former cryptorchidism, 23 with absent testis, 26 treated with orchiectomy and 706 controls. "
08/01/1984 - "On the basis of this study we would consider orchiectomy rather than orchidopexia in patients with unilateral undescended testes presenting at puberty or later."
07/01/2015 - "Majority of patients (27 of 31) presented impaired spermatogenesis with low Johnsen score lesser than 5. Considering the risk of malignancy and low spermatogenesis, we should perform immunohistochemical stains and discuss preventative orchiectomy for the postpubertal cryptorchidism."
10/01/2014 - "Histopathological evaluation of orchiectomy specimens in 51 late postpubertal men with unilateral cryptorchidism."
05/01/2005 - "High ligation of spermatic vessels (HLSV) and low ligation of spermatic vessels (LLSV) have been described in the surgical treatment of high undescended testis. "
02/01/2005 - "The incidence was 0.7% at inguinal herniotomy (IH), 4.1% at ligation of the patent processus vaginalis for communicating hydrocele (P = 0.03 vs IH), and 3.3% at exploration for undescended testes (P = 0.02 vs IH). "
07/01/2003 - "High ligation of spermatic vessels (HLSV) and low ligation of spermatic vessels (LLSV) have been described in the surgical treatment of high undescended testis. "
01/01/1992 - "Efferent-duct ligation and cryptorchism, on the other hand, had no effect on the steady-state concentrations of ESP I transcripts. "
01/01/1988 - "Experimental conditions as cryptorchidism, fetal irradiation, and ligation of the ductuli efferents lead to unspecific alterations in the distribution of the anionic sites that are parallel to the modifications in the basement membrane."
08/01/2001 - "Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy in a transplant patient with undescended testis."
01/01/1954 - "[Gonadotropic activity of the anterior pituitary in cryptorchidism in the rat determined by intrasplenic ovarian graft technic]."
06/01/2012 - "Suppression of spermatogenesis by inducing cryptorchidism or acyline treatment resulted in improved survival of grafted tissue compared with controls and recovery of complete spermatogenesis, whereas control testis grafts mostly degenerated and did not restore complete spermatogenesis. "