|4.||Osteochondroma (Osteocartilaginous Exostosis)
|5.||Spontaneous Fractures (Pathological Fracture)
|1.||Alman, Benjamin A: 4 articles (11/2008 - 03/2002)|
|2.||Wunder, Jay S: 3 articles (11/2008 - 03/2002)|
|3.||Tuccari, Giovanni: 2 articles (11/2009 - 01/2009)|
|4.||Barresi, Valeria: 2 articles (11/2009 - 01/2009)|
|5.||Rosa, Michele Attilio: 2 articles (11/2009 - 01/2009)|
|6.||Ieni, Antonio: 2 articles (11/2009 - 01/2009)|
|7.||Taminiau, Anthonie H M: 2 articles (01/2009 - 03/2005)|
|8.||Hogendoorn, Pancras C W: 2 articles (01/2009 - 03/2005)|
|9.||Bovée, Judith V M G: 2 articles (01/2009 - 03/2005)|
|10.||Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki: 2 articles (09/2007 - 06/2007)|
|1.||Calcium Sulfate (Alabaster)IBA
08/01/1990 - "We recommend simply removing an enchondroma without filling the cavity with cancellous bone or plaster-of-Paris. "
02/01/2005 - "Plaster of Paris appears safe and effective as a bone-filling substance after curettage of enchondroma."
02/01/2005 - "To avoid donor-site morbidity of the iliac crest, we applied plaster of Paris as a bone defect filler after curettage of enchondromas. "
03/01/1992 - "The surgical treatment of enchondroma includes resection of the tumor tissue from the bone matrix, and subsequent filling of the defect with autologous or homologous spongiosa or with sterile plaster of Paris. "
01/01/2013 - "This study demonstrated the outcomes of early management of phalangeal enchondromas with pathologic fractures using a lateral approach and injectable calcium sulfate cement for reconstruction. "
06/01/2015 - "Artificial bone substitute is a safe and effective treatment option for hand enchondroma, with satisfactory functional and radiographic outcomes. "
06/01/2015 - "To evaluate the treatment outcomes of enchondroma of the hand with artificial bone substitute versus autologous (iliac) bone graft. "
06/01/2015 - "Local review of treatment of hand enchondroma (artificial bone substitute versus autologous bone graft) in a tertiary referral centre: 13 years' experience."
|3.||DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA
12/01/1980 - "All chondromas were found to be diploid (normal nuclear DNA content). "
10/01/1979 - "In 23 chondromas the Feulgen DNA content was diploid and showed a unimodal normal distribution. "
01/01/1998 - "The mean DNA content, the percentage of hyperdiploid cells, the percentage of DNA aneuploid cells, and the 2c deviation index were all significantly higher in PSC than in enchondromas (P < 0.01). "
01/01/1998 - "All enchondromas gave diploid DNA histograms but non-diploid histograms were obtained i eight cases (40 per cent) of PSC, with significant populations of hyperdiploid and DNA aneuploid cells. "
01/01/1996 - "In eight of the 17 tumours (6 chondromas, 1 grade I and 1 grade II chondrosarcoma) measurement of DNA content failed because of low cellularity and severe calcification. "
|4.||Proteins (Proteins, Gene)IBA
08/01/1995 - "Immunohistochemical study on collagenous proteins and biophysical analysis of crystals in extraskeletal chondroma."
12/01/2005 - "Positive immunostaining for all proteins was observed in the majority of the examined chondrosarcomas and in a small fraction of enchondromas. "
11/01/2008 - "Our analyses revealed that ILK, alpha-parvin, beta-parvin and Mig-2 are expressed in the majority of chondrosarcomas but in a small proportion of enchondromas, implying that these proteins might have a role in the development and progression of chondrogenic neoplasms. "
|5.||Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor)IBA
03/01/2000 - "Enchondromas and grade 1 CS, most without ICV, did not express VEGE In summary, PCV are present in all categories of tumoral cartilage and the number increases with histological grade; ICV are found in high-grade lesions, and the exceptions show extensive necrosis; VEGF expression by malignant chondrocytes is seen in high-grade lesions almost exclusively, and among these in those lesions that showed intracartilage vessels. "
03/01/2000 - "We examined the microvasculature and VEGF expression in 26 cartilaginous lesions (CL) including 5 enchondromas, 9 grade 1 chondrosarcoma (CS), 6 grade 2 CS, 4 grade 3 CS, 1 mesenchymal, and 1 myxoid chondrosarcoma. "
01/01/2011 - "This study investigates the expression of VEGF together with other growth factors and proliferation markers such as TGFβ2, Ki-67, TNF, FGF1, P53 in 8 cases of hand chondroma treated with courettage, in order to define the ethiopathogenesis of this tumour and the clinical significance of the resulting immunohistochemical profile, with particular respect to angiogenesis. "
|6.||Telomerase (Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase)IBA
03/01/2001 - "To investigate whether the progression towards chondrosarcoma is characterized by reactivation of telomerase activity, this study determined telomerase activity in ten enchondromas, five osteochondromas, and 37 chondrosarcomas using the TRAP assay. "
09/01/2004 - "To address this issue we used immunohistochemistry to compare telomerase reverse transcriptase expression in a collection of 61 tumors consisting of malignant chondrosarcomas of varying grade and benign enchondromas. "
|7.||Biological Markers (Surrogate Marker)IBA
04/15/2002 - "In the current study, the authors evaluated biologic markers for various chondrocytic phenotypes by histochemical and immunohistochemical technology in a large series of clinically well defined cases of enchondromas and conventional chondrosarcomas, each with at least 5 years of clinical follow-up. "
07/01/2015 - "Currently, no adequate immunohistochemical diagnostic protein biomarkers are available to distinguish low-grade chondrosarcoma from enchondroma. "
01/01/1993 - "The distinctive tissue localization of collagen types, particularly of type IX collagen in human cartilaginous tumors (10 cases of enchondroma and 15 cases of chondrosarcoma including 3 cases of secondary chondrosarcoma) was examined immunohistochemically using affinity-purified antibodies against types I, II, III, V, VI, and IX collagen, in comparison with that in human fetal cartilage. "
05/01/2009 - "In this study, immunohistochemical staining was performed with antibodies against D2-40, S100, pankeratin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), brachyury, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in 4 cases of chordoid glioma, 6 skeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, 10 chordoid meningiomas, 16 extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, 18 chordomas, 22 low-grade chondrosarcomas, and 27 enchondromas. "
|9.||Matrix Metalloproteinase 14 (MT1-MMP)IBA
10/01/1999 - "The extent scores of MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in grade 2 chondrosarcoma were significantly higher than those in either enchondroma or grade 1 chondrosarcoma (P < 0.05). "
10/01/1999 - "In this study, the expressions of MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were evaluated in 10 enchondromas, 34 conventional chondrosarcomas, 5 clear-cell chondrosarcomas, 7 mesenchymal chondrosarcomas and 8 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. "
|10.||Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors)IBA
09/01/2015 - "The objectives of this study are to present the outcomes of hand enchondroma treatment by curettage without void augmentation at the authors' institution and to systematically review the literature pertinent to this aspect of management. "
03/01/2013 - "The purpose of this study was to evaluate different treatment options used to fill voids after curettage of hand enchondromas to determine if any provide more rigid fixation. "
09/01/2015 - "Simple curettage is an effective and inexpensive technique that does not lead to increased complication rates in the treatment of most hand enchondromas."
05/01/2015 - "For the treatment of enchondroma in the metacarpal and proximal phalanx, alcohol instillation immediately after curettage was as effective as extensive curettage using a high-speed burr. "
05/01/2015 - "Sixty-two patients with enchondroma were treated with high-speed burring (29 patients) or alcohol instillation (33 patients) after curettage. "
|2.||Bone Transplantation (Bone Grafting)
10/01/2010 - "After comparing our results with those of other studies, we conclude that additional bone-grafting does not improve the recurrence rate of solitary enchondromas of the hand."
01/01/2015 - "The fracture was internally fixed using a strut bone grafting after resection of the chondroma. "
01/01/2009 - "Additional bone grafting in the treatment of enchondromas is not necessary and should be reserved for particular indications."
01/01/2009 - "Operative treatment of enchondromas of the hand: is cancellous bone grafting necessary?"
01/01/1991 - "Bone grafting unnecessary in the treatment of enchondromas in the hand."
|3.||Homologous Transplantation (Allograft)
11/01/1988 - "We concluded that a allograft cortico-cancellous bone can be used effectively in the treatment of enchondromas of the hand. "
11/01/1988 - "We investigated whether cortico-cancellous allograft obtained from cadaveric banked bone is effective in the treatment of enchondroma of the hand. "
07/01/2015 - "In selected cases, a strut allograft bone may be considered a suitable material for long-term reconstruction of the hand after enchondroma excision, especially in young patients, who have increased healing potential compared with older patients."
07/01/2015 - "Although allograft bone chips are widely used in the surgical treatment of enchondroma, the use of structural allograft bone has not been reported before. "
07/01/2015 - "Recurrent Metacarpal Enchondroma Treated With Strut Allograft: 14-year Follow-up."
01/01/1999 - "Adjunctive treatment of enchondromas with CO2 laser."
01/01/2014 - "Right arytenoidectomy and biopsy were performed under general anesthesia with CO2 laser with the pathological diagnosis of chondroma. "
01/01/1999 - "The use of CO2 laser is safe and effective as an adjunct to curettage and bone grafting in the management of relatively large enchondromas of the tubular bones of the hand."
01/01/1999 - "Fourteen enchondromas, in eight patients, involving the tubular bones of the hand, were treated with curettage, CO2 laser sterilization of the tumor margins followed by autologous bone grafting. "
01/01/2011 - "The aim of this study is to present a case of a 43-year-old male having rare malignant transformation of the solitary enchondroma treated with total excision and replacement with iliac bone graft."
01/01/2014 - "A giant periosteal chondroma of the distal femur successfully reconstructed with synthetic bone grafts and a bioresorbable plate: a case report."
06/01/2012 - "Following surgical treatment of enchondromas in the hand, the majority of patients achieve complete bony healing and full range of motion, regardless of the graft material used. "
01/01/2008 - "Flexor digitorum profundus avulsion of the left little finger through enchondroma of the distal phalanx: pull-out wire technique treatment without bone graft."
01/01/2005 - "Enchondroma was resected with cutterage, the walls of osseus cavity cleaned with reamer and bone loss filled up with bone grafts or bone cement. "