|1.||Muscle Spasticity (Spastic)
|3.||Congenital Abnormalities (Deformity)
|4.||Dystonia (Limb Dystonia)
|1.||Miller, Freeman: 32 articles (04/2012 - 02/2002)|
|2.||Becher, Jules G: 23 articles (07/2015 - 05/2005)|
|3.||Graham, H Kerr: 22 articles (04/2015 - 12/2002)|
|4.||Park, Eun Sook: 16 articles (01/2015 - 04/2004)|
|5.||Doyle, Lex W: 16 articles (12/2014 - 11/2003)|
|6.||Dabney, Kirk W: 16 articles (04/2012 - 02/2002)|
|7.||Boyd, Roslyn N: 14 articles (11/2015 - 01/2003)|
|8.||Rouse, Dwight J: 14 articles (11/2015 - 09/2007)|
|9.||Molenaers, Guy: 14 articles (06/2015 - 01/2006)|
|10.||Desloovere, Kaat: 13 articles (06/2015 - 01/2006)|
|1.||Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum Toxin)IBA
05/01/2002 - "Nevertheless, our study suggests that the botulinum toxin is a well-tolerated anti-spasticity treatment that is effective for the hip adductors providing an important contribution to the management of non-ambulatory cerebral palsy children."
01/01/2010 - "Botulin toxin is beneficial in the treatment of spasticity in children suffering from cerebral palsy."
05/01/2015 - "Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is considered a safe and effective therapy for children with cerebral palsy (CP), especially in the hands of experienced injectors and for the majority of children. "
01/01/2013 - "The treatment of children with cerebral palsy with Botulinum Toxin is considered safe and effective, but is only approved for children older than two years of age. "
01/01/2010 - "Botulinum toxin A treatment in children with cerebral palsy is now well established as a safe and effective therapy option. "
|2.||Type A Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum A Toxin)FDA Link
07/01/2000 - "Beneficial effects persisted for 10 to 12 mo in most patients, with three patients exhibiting benefits for at least 20 mo. The results of the present study indicate that a very low dose of botulinum toxin type A combined with'rehabilitation therapy resulted in a long-lasting decrease in spasticity and an improvement in gait in children with cerebral palsy."
10/01/2003 - "In conclusion, intramuscular botulinum toxin type A administration may be effective in children with cerebral palsy, especially at week 4 and when injected in gastrocnemius."
12/01/2006 - "Botulinum toxin type A can be both safe and effective in relieving spasticity in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy. "
01/01/2001 - "Botulinum toxin type A is well tolerated, safe, and effective in the treatment of patients with spastic cerebral palsy. "
04/01/2013 - "Previous studies have shown the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) in the management of ambulant individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). "
09/01/2007 - "Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy can be very effective in the treatment of intractable spasticity, but its effectiveness and safety have not yet been thoroughly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP). "
05/01/2009 - "The results of this randomised controlled trial establish continuous infusion of intrathecal baclofen to be effective in carefully selected children with problems caused by intractable spastic cerebral palsy."
01/01/2015 - "To determine whether intrathecal baclofen is an effective treatment for spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. "
02/01/2010 - "Intrathecal baclofen is an effective treatment for spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy. "
09/01/2008 - "Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is an effective treatment of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy. "
|4.||Magnesium Sulfate (Sulfate, Magnesium)FDA LinkGeneric
06/01/2009 - "Antenatal magnesium sulfate was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of cerebral palsy (relative risk [RR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-0.88), moderate or severe cerebral palsy (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.92), and substantial gross motor dysfunction (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.43-0.83). "
11/01/2015 - "Study Design This is a secondary analysis of the randomized trial evaluating magnesium sulfate for the prevention of cerebral palsy (CP). "
11/01/2015 - "Meta-analysis of the trial data indicates that antenatal magnesium sulfate reduces the risk of cerebral palsy by one-third, and results in one fewer case in every 50 women treated. "
05/01/2015 - "Five randomized trials and 4 meta-analyses have shown a significant 32% reduction of cerebral palsy when administering magnesium sulfate in case of preterm delivery. "
01/01/2015 - "Our study shows that implementing a protocol for prevention of cerebral palsy by magnesium sulfate is feasible in a tertiary obstetric center. "
|5.||pamidronate (APD)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2012 - "In the nonambulatory cerebral palsy (CP) population with a prior history of fracture, the use of pamidronate is not always effective in preventing further fractures. "
09/01/2006 - "The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of low doses of pamidronate in increasing bone mineral density (BMD) in non-ambulatory children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). "
02/01/2005 - "Eighteen osteoporotic (Z-score at or below 2.5) nonambulatory children with cerebral palsy or a neuromuscular disorder received cyclic intravenous administration of pamidronate. "
11/01/2002 - "In this small controlled clinical trial, pamidronate was found to be a safe and very effective agent to increase BMD in nonambulatory children with cerebral palsy."
11/01/2002 - "To evaluate in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial the safety and efficacy of intravenous pamidronate to treat osteopenia in nonambulatory children with cerebral palsy. "
|6.||Trihexyphenidyl (Artane)FDA LinkGeneric
11/01/2014 - "Further studies will be necessary to prove the efficacy of trihexyphenidyl for dyskinetic cerebral palsy."
11/01/2014 - "In this study we evaluated a cohort of 47 patients affected by dyskinetic cerebral palsy and treated with anticholinergic drug (trihexyphenidyl) over one year in order to verify the responsiveness of the new scale. "
07/01/2011 - "Trihexyphenidyl improves motor function in children with dystonic cerebral palsy: a retrospective analysis."
03/01/2011 - "Use of trihexyphenidyl in children with cerebral palsy."
05/01/2007 - "The authors conclude that scientific evidence for the clinical use of trihexyphenidyl in cerebral palsy remains equivocal. "
|7.||Glycopyrrolate (Glycopyrronium Bromide)FDA LinkGeneric
04/01/2012 - "Glycopyrrolate is effective in decreasing sialorrhea in children with cerebral palsy or other neurodevelopmental disabilities. "
01/01/2012 - "Randomized Phase III evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a novel glycopyrrolate oral solution for the management of chronic severe drooling in children with cerebral palsy or other neurologic conditions."
01/01/2012 - "The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of oral glycopyrrolate solution 1 mg/5 mL for 24 weeks in pediatric patients with chronic moderate-to- severe drooling associated with cerebral palsy and other neurologic conditions. "
01/01/2012 - "Safety and efficacy of glycopyrrolate oral solution for management of pathologic drooling in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy and other neurologic conditions."
01/01/2012 - "To evaluate the efficacy of glycopyrrolate oral solution (1 mg/5 mL) in managing problem drooling associated with cerebral palsy and other neurologic conditions. "
11/01/2010 - "The aim of the study is to investigate whether the net nondimensional oxygen utilization scheme is able to detect postoperative improvement in the energy cost of walking in children with cerebral palsy and to compare it with a body mass normalization scheme. "
03/01/2014 - "The present study aimed to assess the effect of intensive rehabilitation combined with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). "
06/01/2012 - "This study evaluated the feasibility of measuring steady-state oxygen uptake (VO2) during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in adults with cerebral palsy (CP) who walk without support and whether there is construct validity for net 6MWT VO2 as a measure of their walking ability. "
05/01/2005 - "Interpretation and implementation of oxygen uptake kinetics studies in children with spastic cerebral palsy."
07/01/2002 - "We conducted a double-blind placebo study to investigate the claim that hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO2) improves the cognitive status of children with cerebral palsy (CP). "
07/08/2008 - "We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of BtA (Dysport) for leg spasticity in 64 children with cerebral palsy. "
01/01/2010 - "The effect of dysport was higher in hemiparetic form compared to spastic diplegia. "
10/01/2000 - "Treatment of paediatric cerebral palsy with Dysport."
01/01/2014 - "To analyze the efficacy of repeated use of dysport in children with spastic forms of cerebral palsy (CP). "
01/01/2009 - "To prospectively study the efficacy and safety of intraparotid gland injection of Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (Dysport) for the treatment of sialorrhea (drooling) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). "
|10.||Growth Hormone (Somatotropin)IBA
01/01/2010 - "However, in children with cerebral palsy and without growth hormone deficiency, only the total score of the test improved significantly after the treatment period. "
08/01/2004 - "Is treatment with growth hormone effective in children with cerebral palsy?"
01/01/2010 - "In this study we assessed the effects of growth hormone treatment (0.3 μg/kg/day) combined with physical rehabilitation in the recovery of gross motor function in children with growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy (four males and six females, mean age 5.63 ± 2.32 years) as compared with that observed in a similar population of cerebral palsy children (five males, five females, mean age 5.9 ± 2.18 years) without growth hormone deficiency treated only with physical rehabilitation for two months. "
04/01/2011 - "Growth hormone deficiency in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: relation to gross motor function and degree of spasticity."
01/01/2011 - "Effects of recombinant growth hormone (GH) replacement and psychomotor and cognitive stimulation in the neurodevelopment of GH-deficient (GHD) children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study."
11/01/2013 - "Serial injections of BTX-A are effective and safe for children with spastic cerebral palsy. "
01/01/2002 - "Improvement in a variety of outcomes may be observed after BtA injections in children with cerebral palsy and lower-extremity spasticity who are ambulatory."
11/01/2013 - "The present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of serial injections of BTX-A in children with spastic cerebral palsy. "
12/01/2008 - "This preliminary study indicates that robotic therapy may be a useful clinical tool when combined with BTX-A injections for improving upper-limb coordination and quality of motor performance in children with cerebral palsy."
01/01/2003 - "This study identifies PT interventions and trends in goal achievement for children with cerebral palsy after BtA injections."
05/01/1994 - "Many neurosurgeons have made a practice of sectioning the S2 dorsal roots during selective posterior rhizotomy for the treatment of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy, but the efficacy of this treatment has not previously been proven. "
10/01/2014 - "Selective dorsal rhizotomy significantly improved urgency, frequency, incontinence, and urodynamic bladder capacity at first incontinence in a significant proportion of spastic cerebral palsy children."
10/01/2010 - "Selective dorsal rhizotomy, which has been well studied in children with spastic diplegia, results in significant reduction in spasticity and improved function in children. "
06/01/1998 - "Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) has been shown to be an effective treatment for the spasticity of cerebral palsy, but few studies have addressed specifically the side effects of the procedure. "
10/01/2010 - "Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is an effective treatment for reducing spasticity and improving gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy. "
|3.||Orthotic Devices (Orthosis)
10/01/2014 - "Knee-ankle-foot orthosis with dynamic ankle and fixed knee are poorly tolerated and are not beneficial in preventing a reduction in ankle-foot dorsiflexion range of motion in children with spastic cerebral palsy, at least with limited use."
11/01/2007 - "Decreasing the spasticity of children with cerebral palsy leads to the improvement of conscious movements, muscles are less toned, passive mobility is improved, orthosis tolerance is also improved, and the child is enabled to perform easier and better motor functions such as crawling, standing and walking. "
10/01/2009 - "The floor-reaction ankle-foot orthosis is effective in restricting sagittal plane ankle motion during the stance phase of gait in patients with cerebral palsy. "
09/01/2015 - "The Efficacy of Ankle-Foot Orthoses on Improving the Gait of Children With Diplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Multiple Outcome Analysis."
04/01/2013 - "Clinical relevance While the research described in this article indicates an improvement in the gait of children with cerebral palsy following tuning of their ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination, there is still a paucity of research with quantitative data on the effects of kinematics and kinetics of ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning, comparing untuned ankle foot orthosis-footwear combinations with tuned ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination. "
01/01/2005 - "This study shows that distal tibial osteotomy alone (without concomitant fibular osteotomy) is an effective and safe procedure for correcting and maintaining correction of tibial torsion in patients with cerebral palsy."
10/01/2015 - "Femoral derotation osteotomy (FDO) as gold standard treatment for internal rotation gait in cerebral palsy (CP) leads to satisfying short-term results, whereas rates of recurrence up to 33% are reported in long-term outcome studies. "
11/01/2013 - "Do changes in torsional magnetic resonance imaging reflect improvement in gait after femoral derotation osteotomy in patients with cerebral palsy?"
01/01/2004 - "The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the efficacy of femoral osteotomy alone with that of osteotomy combined with an acetabular procedure in patients with unstable hips due to spastic cerebral palsy. "
12/16/2015 - "The purpose of this study was to evaluate mid-term results of proximal femoral varus derotation osteotomy (VDRO) in children with cerebral palsy and determine what effect age, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, and surgeon volume had on surgical success. "
10/07/2004 - "This study adds to the accumulating evidence that strength training can be beneficial for people with cerebral palsy by demonstrating benefits for adults with cerebral palsy and high support needs who are subject to decline in physical function associated with the ageing process."
10/07/2004 - "Strength training can be enjoyable and beneficial for adults with cerebral palsy."
08/01/2002 - "To determine whether strength training is beneficial for people with cerebral palsy (CP). "
01/01/2009 - "This study supports the efficacy of task-oriented strength training for improving mobility function in children with cerebral palsy. "
01/01/2012 - "Characteristics associated with improved knee extension after strength training for individuals with cerebral palsy and crouch gait."