|1.||Schizophrenia (Dementia Praecox)
|2.||Mood Disorders (Mood Disorder)
|4.||Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
|5.||Bipolar Disorder (Mania)
|1.||Dhossche, Dirk M: 11 articles (01/2015 - 01/2004)|
|2.||Cohen, David: 9 articles (04/2015 - 04/2003)|
|3.||Fink, Max: 7 articles (10/2014 - 07/2003)|
|4.||Huang, Tiao-Lai: 7 articles (11/2013 - 02/2005)|
|5.||Consoli, Angèle: 6 articles (04/2015 - 01/2008)|
|6.||Wachtel, Lee E: 6 articles (07/2011 - 09/2008)|
|7.||Ghaziuddin, Neera: 5 articles (08/2015 - 01/2006)|
|8.||Fricchione, Gregory L: 5 articles (01/2015 - 10/2005)|
|9.||Spiegel, David R: 5 articles (07/2013 - 01/2006)|
|10.||Stöber, G: 5 articles (11/2003 - 01/2001)|
|1.||Lorazepam (Ativan)FDA LinkGeneric
04/01/2006 - "Lorazepam is effective in rapidly relieving most cases of catatonia. "
02/01/2005 - "The uses of lorazepam and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been proven to be effective in treating catatonia. "
01/01/2010 - "In this report, we describe two renal-insufficient patients with catatonia who had a good response to intramuscular lorazepam whereby the catatonic symptoms were relieved. "
01/01/2007 - "He was diagnosed with catatonia and was treated successfully with lorazepam. "
08/01/1996 - "Each of the five showed pronounced and rapid improvement after administration of low-dose lorazepam, which has previously been reported to be effective in the treatment of catatonia. "
12/01/2015 - "However, ECT was a very effective treatment for catatonia in this patient group that was resistant to benzodiazepines."
01/01/2015 - "In each case, proper identification and treatment of catatonia with benzodiazepines led to significant clinical improvement. "
03/01/2007 - "Despite the lack of large-scale, controlled studies, benzodiazepines appear to be an effective first-line treatment for catatonia. "
09/01/2013 - "Effective treatment of catatonia by combination of benzodiazepine and electroconvulsive therapy."
01/01/2001 - "Electroconvulsive therapy and lately benzodiazepines are not only effective treatment options in this form of catatonia, but also helped generate neurobiological hypotheses concerning its pathophysiology. "
|3.||Antipsychotic Agents (Antipsychotics)IBA
01/01/2003 - "Superior clinical efficacy of ECT over neuroleptics in catatonia is confirmed by this randomized clinical trial."
06/01/2013 - "The non-recognition of catatonia as an independent entity, the lack of a therapeutic consensus and the pending issue on the safety and efficacy of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of catatonia are at the origin of the difficulties of therapeutic support of catatonic patients."
08/31/2015 - "The importance of differentiating cases of catatonia is further supported by the efficacy of antipsychotics in treatment of this case, contrary to conventional guidelines. "
01/01/2013 - "All 39 patients had received an antipsychotic as the first-line treatment and some antipsychotics might have contributed to the development of catatonia. "
06/01/2015 - "First-generation antipsychotics are prohibited, at the risk of worsening the catatonia in becoming malignant and lethal. "
|4.||Diazepam (Valium)FDA LinkGeneric
12/01/1986 - "Catatonia relieved by oral diazepam in a patient with a pituitary microadenoma."
03/01/1988 - "Reports of frequent EEG abnormalities and the successful use of diazepam in catatonia prompted these trials with another anticonvulsant."
05/01/2011 - "If treatment is refractory in cases of NMS, malignant catatonia may be suspected, and changing treatment to diazepam administration may be useful."
05/01/2011 - "The diagnosis of malignant catatonia was confirmed because treatment with diazepam was dramatically effective, whereas the initial treatment for NMS was not beneficial. "
05/01/2011 - "Therefore, treatment was changed to diazepam administration because of suspected malignant catatonia. "
|5.||olanzapine (Zyprexa)FDA Link
06/01/2013 - "The answer to this question seems difficult since some authors report the efficacy of olanzapine in malignant catatonia. "
07/01/2013 - "With a Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale score of 43 on admission, treatment with olanzapine reduced this score to 2, by discharge. "
11/13/2009 - "Treatment of catatonia with olanzapine: a case report."
08/01/2008 - "Treatment of periodic catatonia with atypical antipsychotic, olanzapine."
12/01/2007 - "Treatment of periodic catatonia with olanzapine: a case report."
|6.||1- Methyl- 4- phenyl- 1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)IBA
10/01/2010 - "Licofelone (2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) treatment for 7 days significantly improved locomotor activity, attenuated the severity of catatonia, oxidative damage and restored mitochondrial enzyme complex activity as compared to MPTP-treated group. "
08/01/2007 - "This study examined the antiparkinsonian activity of the hydroalcohol extract of Ilex paraguariensis in models of protection against cerebral injury induced by MPTP and reversal of the catatonia induced by reserpine in mice. "
12/01/2009 - "These results suggest that COX-inhibitors particularly, rofecoxib offers protection against drug-induced catatonia and MPTP-induced striatal lesions possibly by modulating dopaminergic neurotransmission and/or oxidative stress."
12/01/2009 - "Further, the protective effect of COX-inhibitors against perphenazine-induced catatonia and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tertahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced striatal lesions in rats was evaluated. "
12/01/2009 - "Protective effect of cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibitors against drug-induced catatonia and MPTP-induced striatal lesions in rats."
|7.||Risperidone (Risperdal Consta)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2015 - "Long-acting risperidone proved to be safe and effective in treating symptoms of catatonia and oneiroid syndrome. "
09/01/2014 - "The catatonia completely resolved within 2 days after the ART was withheld, and risperidone 1 mg twice a day was prescribed. "
05/01/2010 - "Interestingly, risperidone, which has been thought to cause several cases of catatonia, has also been recommended as a potential treatment. "
08/01/2006 - "Catatonia under treatment with risperidone."
03/01/2005 - "Risperidone treatment of periodic catatonia."
|8.||Reserpine (Serpasil)FDA Link
01/01/2013 - "The test formulation showed significant inhibition of behavioural despair (P < 0.05), weak to moderate anti-reserpine activity - ptosis (P < 0.001), catatonia (P < 0.01), sedation (P < 0.01) and moderate effect in CFS test (P < 0.050). "
01/01/1957 - "[Remarke on experimental catatonia induced with reserpine]."
07/01/1956 - "[A new form of experimental catatonia: experimental catatonia induced by reserpine]."
01/01/2002 - "Reserpine-induced catatonia is a widely accepted animal model of Parkinson's disease. "
04/01/1980 - "1. A reversible disturbance of basal ganglia function was produced in monkeys by the intramuscular administration of reserpine.2. Pallidal discharge was then compared with that recorded in the same animals during movement performance and following passive manipulation of the limbs.3. Akinesia, loss of postural support of the trunk, head and neck and absent postural reflexes were the predominant motor abnormalities produced by reserpine administration.4. Occasionally, postural tremor and catatonia were apparent. "
|9.||aripiprazole (Abilify)FDA Link
01/01/2012 - "In this regard, our results suggest that aripiprazole has numerous advantages, especially in cases of stuporous catatonia and a defective general status."
06/01/2010 - "Successful aripiprazole treatment of catatonia was reported in some recent case reports. "
06/01/2010 - "[Use of aripiprazole in the treatment of catatonia]."
11/01/2009 - "Effectiveness of intramuscular aripiprazole injection in patients with catatonia: report on three cases."
10/01/2008 - "Catatonia resolution and aripiprazole."
|10.||Levodopa (L Dopa)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2011 - "Intravenous or oral L-dopa had no effect on catatonia. "
01/01/2002 - "Combination therapy with L-DOPA (100 mg/kg i.p.) and carbidopa (10 mg/kg i.p.) was less effective in reversing catatonia as compared to higher doses of L-DOPA (200 mg/kg i.p.) and carbidopa (20 mg/kg i.p.), which showed intense hyperactivity in reserpinized mice. "
09/01/1973 - "[Studies of the effect of I-adamantyl-amine hydrochloride and of L-dopa with Ro 4-4602 in human catatonia]."
01/01/1970 - "Reversible effect of L-dopa on tremor and catatonia induced by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine."
12/01/2011 - "Catatonia usually responds to standard treatment with benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy; however, this patient's catatonic syndrome did not improve until we augmented the standard treatment with amantadine and levodopa. "
|1.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
07/01/2013 - "Catatonia though common, its combination with the Cotard syndrome is exceeding rare and more so the response with the pharmacotherapy as in our case. "
12/01/2010 - "Electroconvulsive therapy was mostly started after ineffective pharmacotherapy (n=23; 85%) within 2 to 3 months after catatonia had been diagnosed. "
05/01/2013 - "The most common indication for using ECT for schizophrenia patients was to augment pharmacotherapy, while the most common accompanying symptoms were, in order, catatonia, aggression and suicide. "
03/01/1994 - "We suggest that the onset of one movement disorder after drug therapy (eg, myoclonus) may predict the development of other movement disorders (e.g., catatonia). "
12/01/2010 - "If catatonia is present, electroconvulsive therapy provides a safe but rarely used alternative to pharmacotherapy, psychosurgery, or invasive brain stimulation in the treatment of tics and Tourette syndrome."
03/01/2014 - "Bitemporal electrode placement electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a proven effective treatment for catatonia, and this mode of ECT delivery is the preferred method of treatment in this condition. "
06/01/2007 - "Resolution of catatonia by successful seizure induction via electroconvulsive therapy with electrodes applied bilaterally to the parietotemporal region."
10/01/1983 - "The study suggests that opiate-elicited analgesia and catatonia may be neuroanatomically distinct phenomena."
01/01/1981 - "its ability to evoke analgesia, whilst no tolerance could be detected for DADL-induced catatonia. "
01/01/1981 - "Similarly, chronic infusion of SUF resulted in tolerance towards SUF for both analgesia and catatonia. "
01/01/1981 - "In these rats, the potency of SUF in inducing analgesia and catatonia did not differ between DADL-treated animals and saline-infused controls. "
01/01/1981 - "The opiate-sensitive parameters analgesia and catatonia were investigated. "
12/01/2006 - "Some studies have shown the effectiveness of high-dose steroid, plasma exchange and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in lupus catatonia. "
03/24/2015 - "Most patients had not been given immunotherapies, but one with new-onset treatment-resistant catatonia made substantial improvement after plasma exchange. "
01/01/2008 - "Plasma exchange in patients with stuporous catatonia and systemic lupus erythematosus."
04/01/2003 - "The present report notes that systemic lupus erythematosus should be considered among possible causes of catatonia and shows that plasma exchange could be an efficient treatment option for such neuropsychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus, to avoid the use of electroconvulsive therapy in young patients."
04/01/2003 - "Case study: effectiveness of plasma exchange in an adolescent with systemic lupus erythematosus and catatonia."