|5.||Weight Loss (Weight Reduction)
|1.||Anker, Stefan D: 39 articles (12/2015 - 09/2002)|
|2.||Tisdale, M J: 34 articles (08/2014 - 01/2000)|
|3.||Argilés, Josep M: 31 articles (12/2014 - 05/2002)|
|4.||Tisdale, Michael J: 26 articles (07/2014 - 06/2002)|
|5.||López-Soriano, Francisco J: 25 articles (12/2014 - 05/2002)|
|6.||Springer, Jochen: 22 articles (01/2016 - 12/2005)|
|7.||Busquets, Sílvia: 22 articles (12/2014 - 05/2002)|
|8.||Mantovani, Giovanni: 21 articles (01/2013 - 06/2003)|
|9.||Madeddu, Clelia: 20 articles (08/2015 - 06/2003)|
|10.||Inui, Akio: 19 articles (01/2015 - 02/2002)|
01/01/2011 - "Ghrelin is a very promising treatment option for cardiac cachexia, with the analogue BIM-28131 (RM-131) being the most effective compound."
09/18/2001 - "Chronic subcutaneous administration of ghrelin improved LV dysfunction and attenuated the development of LV remodeling and cardiac cachexia in rats with CHF."
05/01/2014 - "Several studies indicate that ghrelin administration is a valid treatment for cachexia because it improves muscle mass and function, likely by restoring a positive energy balance. "
01/01/2013 - "These effects of ghrelin have been confirmed in multiple types of cachexia in both laboratory and human studies, suggesting a positive future for cachexia treatments."
01/01/2013 - "In this chapter, we review the mechanisms of action of ghrelin and present the available data in animal models and human trials using ghrelin or ghrelin mimetics in different settings of cachexia."
|2.||Megestrol Acetate (Borea)FDA LinkGeneric
05/01/1989 - "Nursing interventions to stimulate appetite and promote greater food intake, coupled with the use of agents that alter metabolism, such as megestrol acetate, may reverse the trend of cachexia and thus provide an increased sense of well-being and improved quality of life."
08/01/1998 - "Anticachectic efficacy of megestrol acetate at different doses and versus placebo in patients with neoplastic cachexia."
01/01/2010 - "Report of a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of megestrol acetate in elderly dialysis patients with cachexia."
01/01/2006 - "The aim is to review major clinical trials that have used megestrol acetate (MA) in the treatment of cachexia across several disease states. "
12/01/1990 - "The true effectiveness of megestrol acetate for HIV-related cachexia and the effects of treatment on quality of life are currently being assessed in a national prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial."
|3.||Interleukin-6 (Interleukin 6)IBA
01/01/2011 - "Attenuation of IL-6 signaling was effective in blocking the progression of cachexia, but not sufficient to reverse the process."
05/01/2015 - "Future studies in the female will need to determine mechanisms underlying regulation of IL-6 response and cachexia induction."
05/01/2015 - "The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IL-6 signaling and cachexia progression in the female Apc(Min/+) mouse. "
05/01/2015 - "IL-6 overexpression did not affect cachexia progression in female Apc(Min/+) mice. "
05/01/2015 - "Another group of females had IL-6 overexpressed between 12 and 14 weeks or 15-18 weeks of age to determine whether IL-6 could induce cachexia. "
|4.||Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor)IBA
05/01/1999 - "Several studies have shown that cardiac cachexia is linked to increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha. "
03/01/1999 - "Several studies have shown that cardiac cachexia is linked to raised plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-ac. "
02/01/2015 - "Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) contributes to the pathophysiology of CF by causing cachexia. "
12/01/2010 - "TNF-alpha impairs regulation of muscle oxidative phenotype: implications for cachexia?"
02/01/2010 - "These data suggest hypothalamic TNFalpha action to be important mediator of the wastage syndrome in cachexia."
08/01/1999 - "An understanding of the relation between cachexia and negative regulatory cytokines may point to effective treatment of geriatric cachexia as well."
04/01/2000 - "Data from in vitro studies and animal models suggest that increased levels of inflammatory cytokines can induce cachexia and might inhibit the effects of GH on target tissues. "
09/01/1997 - "These latter type of studies revealed that cachexia can rarely, if ever, be attributed to one single cytokine but rather to a set of cytokines that work in concert in cachexia. "
09/01/1997 - "However, from various studies it has become clear that the action of TNF can only be understood in the context of simultaneous presence of other cytokines, some of which have activities that are at the least equally important as TNF in bringing about cachexia. "
03/01/1997 - "The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha) in cachexia induced by T-cell leukaemia in the rat. "
|6.||Thalidomide (Thalomid)FDA Link
08/01/1998 - "The study was structured to determine the ability of thalidomide to reduce or stabilize the symptoms of cachexia. "
12/01/2002 - "Thalidomide elicits a wide range of pharmacological effects, including anti-cachexia, anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic activities. "
04/01/2005 - "Thalidomide in the treatment of cancer cachexia: a randomised placebo controlled trial."
04/01/1998 - "Studies of thalidomide, either alone or in combination with other therapies for the treatment of cancer cachexia, are warranted."
01/01/2012 - "The review authors cannot confirm or refute previous literature on the use of thalidomide for patients with advanced cancer who have cachexia and there is inadequate evidence to recommend it for clinical practice. "
01/01/2010 - "(1) To compare ghrelin receptor expression between clinically stable CF subjects with normal BMI, CF subjects with cachexia and healthy controls. "
11/01/2015 - "Mechanisms of anorexia-cachexia syndrome and rational for treatment with selective ghrelin receptor agonist."
12/01/2014 - "Anamorelin HCl (ANAM) is a novel, orally active, ghrelin receptor agonist in clinical development for the treatment of cancer cachexia. "
04/01/2014 - "Anamorelin hydrochloride is an orally active ghrelin receptor agonist in development by Helsinn, for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cachexia. "
01/01/2015 - "Recently, anamorelin, a synthetic orally active ghrelin receptor agonist, showed promising results, but the best approach to cancer cachexia probably remains an early multimodal interventions consisting in nutritional intervention, exercise and rehabilitation program, and multi-target drug therapies. "
07/20/2001 - "Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is effective in attenuating the increased protein catabolism in muscle in cancer cachexia, possibly due to inhibition of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) formation. "
11/01/2003 - "In cancer cachexia attenuation of the inflammatory response using eicosapentaenoic acid results in improved nutritional intake and status. "
10/01/2005 - "Clinical studies have shown that administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to patients who have unresectable pancreatic cancer induces marked attenuation of cachexia. "
11/08/2011 - "Influence of eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation on lean body mass in cancer cachexia."
11/01/2011 - "The beneficial effect of eicosapentaenoic acid in cancer patients is widely described especially in relation to its role in tumour cachexia. "
|9.||NF-kappa B (NF-kB)IBA
06/01/2013 - "The findings in the present manuscript enumerate the metabolic consequences of cachexia in the gastrocnemius and demonstrate that NF-kB targeted treatment only partly rescues the cachectic metabolic phenotype. "
11/15/2007 - "The activity of NF-kappaB system in peripheral immune cells is augmented in patients with advanced CHF, whereas it is diminished in those with cardiac cachexia. "
11/15/2007 - "Regardless of the severity of CHF expressed as NYHA class, patients with cardiac cachexia demonstrated significantly reduced NF-kappaB activity in PBMC as compared to both non-cachectic CHF patients (P<0.001) and healthy controls (P<0.05). "
11/15/2007 - "Using electromobility shift assay, NF-kappaB activity was assessed in nuclear fractions of PBMC isolated from 43 patients with systolic CHF (88% men, age: 64 years [median], left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 30%, ischaemic CHF aetiology: 79%, NYHA class [I/II/III/IV]: 2/21/19/1, 10 patients with cardiac cachexia) and 12 healthy adult subjects. "
01/24/2003 - "We propose that the biphasic activation of NF-kappaB in response to TNF may play a key regulatory role in skeletal muscle wasting associated with cachexia."
07/01/1996 - "These results suggest that the pineal hormone MLT may be effective in the treatment of the neoplastic cachexia by decreasing TNF blood concentrations."
11/01/2007 - "Studies on peripheral hormones involved in energy homeostasis and their hypothalamic signaling in the pathophysiology of uremic cachexia have led to potential novel therapeutic strategies. "
01/01/2001 - "With respect to the putative mechanisms of cardiac cachexia, anabolic therapy (hormones or nutrients) and anticytokine therapy have been proposed, but trials are scarce and often inconclusive. "
01/01/2013 - "Gut hormones, appetite suppression and cachexia in patients with pulmonary TB."
08/01/2008 - "Gut hormones and the treatment of disease cachexia."
|1.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
01/01/2016 - "Factors like recent chemotherapy, surgery, or cachexia do not seem to attenuate the anabolic potential to feeding. "
03/01/2015 - "Almost half of the patients had stable or increased muscle mass during chemotherapy without receiving any cachexia treatment. "
03/01/2015 - "Many patients at risk for developing cachexia or with cachexia experience side effects of chemotherapy that might aggravate the development of cachexia. "
01/01/2014 - "Docosahexanoic and eicosopentanoic acid supplements have mixed effects on cachexia and are currently being tested as potential adjuncts to maximize response to chemotherapy. "
02/01/2013 - "Muscle wasting (the signal event in cachexia) is associated not only with reduced quality of life, but also markedly increased toxicity from chemotherapy. "
|2.||Nutritional Support (Artificial Feeding)
05/01/2004 - "The results of the current study strongly support that nutrition is a limiting factor influencing survival and that nutritional support protects integrated metabolism and metabolic function in patients with progressive cachexia secondary to malignant disease."
01/01/1994 - "A consensus view from a large number of studies suggests that cachexia cannot be fully reversed by vigorous enteral nutritional support. "
04/01/1977 - "Further studies are indicated to determine if nutritional support for cardiac cachexia can reduce the levels of morbidity and mortality during mitral and tricuspid valve surgery."
12/01/2015 - "The evidence for nutritional support in refractory cachexia is, not surprisingly, less dramatic. "
09/01/2015 - "A suboptimal response to nutritional support may further aggravate cachexia, yet the influence of nutrition on protein kinetics in cachectic patients is poorly understood. "
11/01/2006 - "Progressive resistance training and other interventions aimed at stimulating skeletal muscle growth might be beneficial in this population, and further studies on the pathophysiology of cachexia in AS patients are needed."
01/01/2011 - "Although strength-training exercise has been used in persons with RA, it is not clear if it is effective for reducing cachexia. "
08/01/2008 - "Cachexia shows little response to diet alone but progressive resistance training and anti-TNF therapies show promise in tackling this potentially disabling extra-articular feature of RA."
06/01/2005 - "A Phase II trial was performed as a preliminary test of the efficacy and safety of progressive resistance training (PRT) as adjunct treatment for rheumatoid cachexia. "
01/01/2011 - "A 46-year-old woman was studied to determine: (i) if resistance exercise could reverse cachexia by improving muscle mass, fiber cross-sectional area, and muscle function; and (2) if elevated apoptotic signaling was involved in cachexia with RA and could be reduced by resistance training. "
04/01/2015 - "We explored the prevalence of different clinical markers of cachexia at the time of diagnosis and before and after treatment. "
05/01/2000 - "Improvement in quality-of-life measures and stimulation of weight gain after treatment with megestrol acetate oral suspension in geriatric cachexia: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study."
03/01/2014 - "acnes did not display increase of the following clinical signs: weight loss, alopecia, onychogryphosis, cachexia, anorexia, apathy, skin lesions, hyperkeratosis, ocular secretion, and enlarged lymph nodes; they also exhibited a significant reduction in the spleen parasite load in comparison to the control dogs; 2) rLdccys1-treated dogs exhibited a significant delayed type cutaneous hypersensitivity elicited by the recombinant antigen, as well as high IgG2 serum titers and low IgG1 serum titers; sera from rLdccys1-treated dogs also contained high IFN-γ and low IL-10 concentrations; 3) control dogs exhibited all of the clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis and had low serum IgG2 and IFN-γ levels and high concentrations of IgG1 and IL-10; 4) all of the dogs treated with rLdccys1 were alive 12 months after treatment, whereas dogs which received either saline or P. "
01/01/2011 - "There was progressive cachexia and parenteral nutrition had to be instituted. "
01/01/2010 - "To examine the impact of additional parenteral nutrition (APN) we assessed outpatients suffering from APC and progressive cachexia. "
12/01/2006 - "Diet supplementation and intradialytic parenteral nutrition have not been successful in reversing cachexia in CKD. "
08/01/2009 - "The limited nutritional response to the parenteral nutrition reflects more the presence of metabolic derangements which are characteristic of the cachexia syndrome (or merely the short duration of the nutritional support) rather than the inadequacy of the nutritional regimen. "
01/01/2009 - "Recent data indicate that the outcome of oncological patients suffering from cancer cachexia could be improved by parenteral nutrition and that parenteral nutrition results in an improvement of quality of life and in prolonged survival. "