|3.||Brain Ischemia (Cerebral Ischemia)
|4.||Brain Injuries (Brain Injury)
|1.||Zhang, John H: 113 articles (01/2016 - 09/2002)|
|2.||Kochanek, Patrick M: 93 articles (07/2015 - 01/2002)|
|3.||Tang, Jiping: 64 articles (01/2016 - 06/2004)|
|4.||Dixon, C Edward: 60 articles (01/2016 - 04/2002)|
|5.||Stein, Donald G: 57 articles (10/2015 - 01/2002)|
|6.||Hayes, Ronald L: 57 articles (08/2015 - 02/2002)|
|7.||Xi, Guohua: 56 articles (01/2016 - 01/2002)|
|8.||Chopp, Michael: 55 articles (04/2015 - 10/2002)|
|9.||Keep, Richard F: 53 articles (01/2016 - 01/2002)|
|10.||Hua, Ya: 52 articles (01/2016 - 01/2002)|
08/15/2011 - "Progesterone has been found to be beneficial in several animal species, different models of brain injury, and in two preliminary human clinical trials. "
05/01/2011 - "Administration of the neurosteroid progesterone (PROG) has been shown to be beneficial in a number of brain injury models and in two recent clinical trials. "
07/01/2009 - "Clinical trials have shown that short-and long-term progesterone treatment induces a significant improvement in the level of disability among patients with brain injury. "
11/01/2012 - "Progesterone (PG), a promising therapeutic for treating traumatic brain injury, has been difficult to formulate into a high-dose/low-volume form for emergency intravenous administration due to its hydrophobicity and crystallinity. "
12/01/2011 - "Is progesterone therapy beneficial for acute traumatic brain injury?"
01/01/2015 - "The problem is not whether hyperbaric oxygen is effective for treating brain injuries, but why the interference in offering this therapy to those who need it. "
01/01/2012 - "[Therapeutic efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen on traumatic brain injury in the rat and the underlying mechanisms]."
01/01/1986 - "These results suggest that treatment with oxygen radical scavengers might be effective in inhibiting or reversing some of the effects of brain injury, even though the intervention with the therapeutic agents occurs sometime after the injury has taken place."
10/01/2013 - "The mechanisms underlying the protective effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on traumatic brain injury (TBI) are unclear. "
01/01/2008 - "Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy has been shown to improve outcome after brain injury, however its mechanisms are not understood. "
|3.||Biological Markers (Surrogate Marker)IBA
10/01/2014 - "Biomarkers have the potential to enable the clinicians to screen infants for brain injury, monitor progression of disease, identify injured brain regions, assess efficacy of neuroprotective therapies, and offer hope to identify the timing of the injury, thus shedding light on the potential pathophysiology and the most effective therapy. "
08/01/2014 - "In perinatal medicine, the improved survival of extremely premature infants who are at high risk for adverse neurologic outcomes has increased the demand for the discovery of biomarkers in detecting and predicting the prognosis of infants with neonatal brain injury. "
12/01/2014 - "As these biomarkers have been examined, with promising results, in patients with traumatic brain injury, there is a potential for their implementation in patients with vertebral spine fractures. "
11/01/2008 - "In addition, we discuss new developments in the use of biomarkers of brain injury in TBI diagnosis and also discuss recent advances in bedside neuromonitoring that may be helpful in the setting of pediatric brain injury. "
10/01/2012 - "The identification of biomarkers of brain injury may also be helpful in guiding end-of-life decision making and may facilitate the design of neuroprotective trials."
09/01/2008 - "This study suggests that melatonin plays a potent protective role against brain injury and that Akt activation and FKHR phosphorylation by melatonin mediated these protective effects."
11/01/2008 - "The aim of the study was to evaluate the intensity of oxidative stress in the brain of animals chronically exposed to mobile phones and potential protective effects of melatonin in reducing oxidative stress and brain injury. "
01/01/2008 - "Our findings suggest that melatonin prevents cell death because of brain injury and that these protective effects are mediated through maintaining the interaction between pBad and 14-3-3, thus blocking activation of the apoptotic pathway."
11/01/2000 - "Protective effects of melatonin in ischemic brain injury."
05/16/2014 - "Melatonin ameliorates brain injury induced by systemic lipopolysaccharide in neonatal rats."
01/01/1999 - "NMDA-receptor blockade improved the outcome assessed by the functional tests but failed to influence the morphological changes, suggesting that this behavioural test is a more sensitive indicator of outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI)."
02/01/1995 - "Although NMDA receptor antagonists have been reported to have therapeutic efficacy in animal models of brain injury, these compounds may have unacceptable toxicity for clinical use. "
12/01/1993 - "Despite the potential role of the NMDA receptor in the development of post-TBI cognitive deficits, no studies to date have evaluated the efficacy of NMDA receptor antagonists on memory dysfunction after brain injury. "
02/01/1995 - "Efficacy of competitive vs noncompetitive blockade of the NMDA channel following traumatic brain injury."
09/01/2012 - "Expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 1 and its phosphorylated state in basal ganglia of a neonatal piglet hypoxic-ischemic brain injury model: a controlled study of (1)H MRS."
12/31/2008 - "Regarding the safety profile of erythropoietin in premature and mature infants, this agent may be potentially beneficial in preventing hyperoxic brain injury."
01/01/2013 - "To report the safety and efficacy of a novel therapeutic trial with umbilical cord blood (UCB) and concomitant recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), which was tried for three cases of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rehabilitation. "
06/01/2009 - "Our data, for the first time, demonstrate that erythropoietin treatment restores brain mitochondrial function after traumatic brain injury, which will enhance cellular energy generation and reduce oxidative stress, strongly supporting erythropoietin as a promising agent for the therapeutic treatment of traumatic brain injury."
09/01/2014 - "The efficacy of erythropoietin in treating experimental traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of controlled trials in animal models."
01/01/2010 - "Safety and efficacy of erythropoietin in traumatic brain injury patients: a pilot randomized trial."
|7.||Estradiol (Estrace)FDA LinkGeneric
05/01/2006 - "Our findings suggest that estradiol plays a potent protective role against brain injury and that Akt activation and FKHR phosphorylation by estradiol mediated these protective effects."
01/22/2007 - "Our findings suggest that estradiol prevents cell death due to brain injury and that Raf-MEK-ERK cascade activation and its downstream targets, p90RSK, Bad phosphorylation by estradiol mediated these protective effects."
10/21/2005 - "Our findings suggest that estradiol prevents cell death due to brain injury and that Akt activation and Bad phosphorylation by estradiol mediated these protective effects."
02/13/2001 - "Thus, our results clearly establish that the ER alpha subtype is a critical mechanistic link in mediating the protective effects of physiological levels of estradiol in brain injury. "
06/27/2014 - "Estradiol ameliorates the reduction in parvalbumin expression induced by ischemic brain injury."
|8.||Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)IBA
11/01/2000 - "These findings indicate that unilateral H-I brain injury in a neonatal rodent model is associated with cognitive deficits, and that BDNF pretreatment is protective against both brain injury and spatial memory impairment."
09/08/2009 - "Exercise-induced improvement in cognitive performance after traumatic brain injury in rats is dependent on BDNF activation."
08/19/2014 - "Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of HO-1 against ischemic brain injury induced by cerebral I/R and to explore whether the BDNF-TrkB-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway contributed to the protection provided by HO-1. "
01/01/2014 - "Many studies have demonstrated that the TrkB-ERK1/2 signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the protective effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) following perinatal H-I brain injury in experimental animals. "
02/01/2013 - "These studies demonstrate that by increasing the brain concentration of BDNF, intraventricularly transplanted MSCs-BDNF might play an important role in the treatment of traumatic brain injury and might be an optional therapeutic strategy."
|9.||Glutamic Acid (Glutamate)FDA Link
07/01/2015 - "Our data suggest that PFT-α (O) provided a significant reduction of cortical cell death and protected neurons from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in vitro, as well as improved neurological functional outcome and reduced brain injury in vivo via anti-apoptotic mechanisms. "
08/18/2000 - "These findings suggest that QNYZ has protective effects against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in neuronal cells during ischemic brain injury."
01/01/2012 - "Decreasing blood glutamate concentrations after traumatic brain injury accelerates brain-to-blood glutamate efflux, leading to improved neurologic outcomes. "
01/01/2012 - "β2 adrenergic-mediated reduction of blood glutamate levels and improved neurological outcome after traumatic brain injury in rats."
07/01/2015 - "Recent studies have shown that blood glutamate grabbing is an effective strategy to reduce the excitotoxic effect of extracellular glutamate released during ischemic brain injury. "
|10.||Cyclosporine (Ciclosporin)FDA LinkGeneric
02/01/2000 - "Continuous infusion of cyclosporin A postinjury significantly ameliorates cortical damage following traumatic brain injury."
01/01/2000 - "Recent evidence from our laboratory demonstrates that the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A significantly ameliorates cortical damage following traumatic brain injury. "
09/01/1999 - "Cyclosporin A significantly ameliorates cortical damage following experimental traumatic brain injury in rodents."
06/01/2001 - "The immunophilin ligand, cyclosporin A (CsA), is effective in reducing the axonal damage associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). "
05/01/2011 - "A review of laboratory and clinical data supporting the safety and efficacy of cyclosporin A in traumatic brain injury."
|1.||Transplantation (Transplant Recipients)
07/01/2014 - "A significant improvement in neurological function was found in the UCMSC transplantation animals (7.75 ± 0.71) compared with the brain injury only group (p < 0.01). "
01/01/2011 - "As compared with common MSCs transplantation, GDNF+MSCs transplantation was significantly more effective in reducing apoptotic cell volume and enhancing Bcl-2 expression, which was favorable for the ischemic brain injury. "
04/01/2012 - "Treatment of ischemic brain injury by transplantation of MSCs in neonatal animal models has been shown to be effective in reducing lesion volume and improving functional outcome. "
06/01/2011 - "hNPCs transplantation is safe and effective in treatment of severe neonatal brain injury. "
12/01/2005 - "Transplantation of a novel cell line population of umbilical cord blood stem cells ameliorates neurological deficits associated with ischemic brain injury."
01/01/1997 - "Rapid resuscitation of clinical and experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) with hypertonic saline (HS) has been shown to improve neurological function and decrease intracranial pressure (ICP). "
01/01/1996 - "Small volume resuscitation could not be demonstrated to improve outcome in polytrauma patients, although a slight improvement in patients with brain injury may be assumed. "
12/01/2009 - "This study presents a case of permanent, central DI following mild traumatic brain injury with post-resuscitation GCS 13/15. "
02/01/2007 - "The major emphasis during the first phase of study is on information from time of injury to post-resuscitation and outcome at 6 months thereby providing a unique resource for prognostic analysis and for studies aimed at optimizing the design and analysis of Phase III trials in traumatic brain injury."
09/01/2005 - "One examined hypertonic saline (HTS) and the other, albumin versus saline.( )For the first time in a randomised trial, hypertonic saline was tested for pre-hospital resuscitation of hypotensive patients with traumatic brain injury, and for the first time a resuscitation fluid trial measured long term neurological function as the primary outcome. "
07/01/2010 - "Debate continues as to whether decompressive craniectomy (DC) is an effective treatment for severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). "
05/01/2010 - "It is generally believed that the outcome of traumatic brain injury is not improved by decompressive craniectomy in patients older than 30-50 years. "
08/01/2008 - "Efficacy of large decompressive craniectomy in severe traumatic brain injury."
08/01/2002 - "In this retrospective study we have evaluated the efficacy of decompressive craniectomy as a last resort therapy, from the data of nine patients with severe brain injury and delayed cerebral oedema (diffuse injury type III), treated between January 1997 and September 1999. "
12/01/2014 - "In this review, we summarize the existing guidelines for the surgical management of TBI, present an overview of the underlying pathophysiologic principles and neurophysiologic consequences relating to decompressive hemicraniectomy, highlight the history, relevant studies, and outcomes pertaining to decompressive craniectomy for patients with severe TBI, and discuss some of the current controversies in the surgical management of traumatic brain injury. "
04/01/2004 - "Although induced hypothermia appears to be a highly promising treatment in various forms of neurological injury including traumatic brain injury, the difficulties in realising its therapeutic potential are underscored by the negative results from a large multi-center trial. "
01/01/2007 - "Neither any neuroprotective drug has been shown to be beneficial in improving the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) nor has any prophylactically-induced moderate hypothermia shown any beneficial effect on outcome in severe TBI, despite the optimism generated by preclinical studies. "
09/01/2007 - "Experimental studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of induced hypothermia in prevention of secondary insults following acute brain injury. "
09/01/2006 - "Although these meta-analyses included trials containing adult patients, a phase II trial of induced hypothermia in pediatric traumatic brain injury has established its feasibility and safety in infants and children. "
09/01/2006 - "Both meta-analyses included trials of adult patients with severe traumatic brain injury randomized to induced hypothermia or normothermia and evaluated risk of death and poor neurologic outcomes. "
03/20/2014 - "The protective effects of hyperbaric oxygenation following traumatic brain injury have been widely investigated; however, few studies have made systematic comparisons between the different hyperbaric oxygenation manipulations and their corresponding effects. "
05/01/2014 - "Many studies suggest that hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) can provide some clinically curative effects on blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). "
01/01/2011 - "This study was designed to investigate the use of a single pretreatment regimen of either hyperbaric oxygenation or normobaric oxygenation to determine its effects in a murine model of surgically induced brain injury (SBI). "
03/01/2009 - "Numerous studies have demonstrated a protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in experimental ischemic brain injury, and many physiological and molecular mechanisms of hyperbaric oxygen therapy-related neuroprotection have been identified. "
01/01/2015 - "Repetitive hyperbaric oxygenation attenuates reactive astrogliosis and suppresses expression of inflammatory mediators in the rat model of brain injury."