|3.||Dystonia (Limb Dystonia)
|4.||Dystonic Disorders (Writer's Cramp)
|1.||Jankovic, Joseph: 8 articles (01/2015 - 06/2007)|
|2.||Carruthers, Jean: 5 articles (12/2010 - 01/2003)|
|3.||Carruthers, Alastair: 5 articles (12/2010 - 01/2003)|
|4.||Roggenkämper, Peter: 4 articles (01/2015 - 01/2007)|
|5.||Wabbels, Bettina: 4 articles (09/2014 - 01/2007)|
|6.||Berardelli, A: 4 articles (08/2011 - 08/2007)|
|7.||Ishii, Kenji: 4 articles (01/2011 - 07/2003)|
|8.||Suzuki, Yukihisa: 4 articles (01/2011 - 07/2003)|
|9.||Mochizuki, Manabu: 4 articles (01/2011 - 07/2003)|
|10.||Wakakura, Masato: 4 articles (01/2011 - 07/2007)|
|1.||Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum Toxin)IBA
10/01/2003 - "Botulinum toxin A appeared to be effective in the treatment of essential blepharospasm in this dog."
01/01/2005 - "To determine whether botulinum toxin (BtA) is an effective and safe treatment for blepharospasm. "
02/01/1987 - "Treatment with type A botulinum toxin appears to be a safe and effective means of temporarily relieving blepharospasm. "
01/01/1986 - "Botulinum toxin as an initial treatment or as an adjunct in postsurgical residual blepharospasm shows promise in this preliminary study."
01/01/2003 - "While treating blepharospasm, the Carruthers incidentally found that botulinum toxin A improved glabellar frown lines. "
|2.||Type A Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum A Toxin)FDA Link
03/01/2013 - "Botulinum neurotoxin A injection was also effective for combined dry eye symptom in the essential blepharospasm patients."
01/01/2001 - "Administration of botulinum neurotoxin A (BONT/A) is a common and effective treatment of blepharospasm. "
03/01/2013 - "Botulinum neurotoxin A treatment relieved blepharospasm in all patients. "
01/01/1995 - "The clinical efficacy of botulinum toxin type A was studied in patients with blepharospasm. "
04/01/1996 - "In a population of subjects with blepharospasm and facial hemispasm treated for the first time with botulinum toxin type A (BT) in the orbicularis oculi muscle, we performed an electrophysiologic study (compound muscle action potential and motor evoked potential) to assess whether BT effect could be detected in near untreated muscles (orbicularis oris and masseter). "
|3.||onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox)FDA Link
01/01/2015 - "Phase III head-to-head trials of incobotulinumtoxinA versus onabotulinumtoxinA for the treatment of blepharospasm and CD have demonstrated therapeutic equivalence of both formulations. "
03/01/2015 - "Currently, incobotulinumtoxinA and onabotulinumtoxinA have the most evidence of benefit for patients with blepharospasm. "
01/01/2012 - "Botox A administered prior to ocular surgery will control both blepharospasm and lower the risks that can be encountered before and during surgery, thus increasing the comfort of the patient and the surgeon."
11/15/2010 - "Botox is also approved for treatment of blepharospasm."
01/01/2008 - "Treatment of blepharospasm with Botox may lead to drooping of the eyelids and corneal exposure. "
|4.||Doxorubicin (Adriamycin)FDA LinkGeneric
05/01/2001 - "To test the safety and effectiveness of Doxil chemomyectomy in monkey eyelids using treatment schedules and doses similar to those proposed for the human blepharospasm patients in Phase I and II trials. "
04/01/1991 - "The authors find that doxorubicin is a highly effective myotoxin and represents a novel permanent treatment for blepharospasm and related diseases because it is highly specific for muscle cells and is easy to localize within a given muscle."
12/01/1988 - "The ramifications of this effect on the use of doxorubicin for permanent treatment of blepharospasm and other related diseases are discussed in this first report of the injection of this drug into the eyelids of nonhuman primates."
11/15/1993 - "Muscle loss from doxorubicin injections into the eyelids of a patient with blepharospasm."
07/01/2001 - "Doxorubicin chemomyectomy is a potent method for the permanent removal of a muscle or group of muscles after direct local injection, and has been used successfully to treat blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm patients. "
01/01/2011 - "Xeomin(®) represents a new treatment option for the repeated treatment of patients with blepharospasm in that it may reduce antibody-induced therapy failure. "
06/01/2012 - "The purpose of this report is to review the safety profile and dosing schedule for Xeomin for the treatment of CD and blepharospasm. "
12/01/2009 - "Clinical efficacy and tolerability of Xeomin in the treatment of blepharospasm."
09/01/2013 - "Sustained efficacy and safety of repeated incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin(®)) injections in blepharospasm."
03/01/2012 - "Xeomin(®) 's therapeutic efficacy against cervical dystonia, blepharospasm and spasticity has been proven in large randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled studies leading to registrations in many countries. "
06/01/2005 - "At the twelfth week after Dysport injection, it was still effective in relieving blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm. "
01/01/2015 - "Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm."
01/01/2015 - "The aim was to elucidate clinical trial efficacy, safety, and dosing practices of abobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) treatment in adult patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. "
09/01/2006 - "The costs of essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm treatment with Dysport are high, mainly because of the toxin price. "
09/01/2006 - "4- Dysport treatment is successful in both essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. "
11/01/2006 - "Of the 120 total injection comparisons, a better BTX-A effect on one side of the face was reliably identified by 80% and 77% of blepharospasm and cosmetic patients, respectively, with the placebo-treated side providing better BTX-A effect approximately 90% of the time (p < 0.001). "
11/01/2001 - "Significant functional and cosmetic improvements were achieved by increasing the palpebral fissure height and length while greatly decreasing the blepharospasm of the patients. "
07/01/2012 - "From this modest and limited beginning, it has found use for treatment of a plethora of cosmetic, neuromuscular, and skeletal disabilities, including cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, and temporary improvement in the appearance of moderate to severe glabellar lines. "
05/01/2015 - "Initially popularized for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm, injection of botulinum neurotoxin has become the most commonly performed cosmetic treatment in the United States. "
07/01/2006 - "The blepharospasm and eyelid alterations caused by Schwartz-Jampel syndrome should be treated to provide functional and cosmetic improvements. "
|8.||Trihexyphenidyl (Artane)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/1989 - "A 64-year-old woman with blepharospasm, sustained clenching of the jaw, antecollis, and a strained, high-pitched phonation continued chronic trihexyphenidyl therapy despite the lack of any obvious benefit. "
01/01/1984 - "Relief of blepharospasm was achieved with clonazepan (CNZ, 1 mg i.v.) and benzhexol (BH, 5 mg i.m.) by acute parenteral administration in 5 cases of Meige's syndrome. "
06/01/1985 - "Blepharospasm: a case study comparison of trihexyphenidyl (Artane) versus EMG biofeedback."
06/01/2004 - "Based on this review, we conclude: (i) botulinum toxin has obvious benefit (level A, class I-II evidence) for the treatment of cervical dystonia and blepharospasm; (ii) trihexyphenidyl in high dosages is effective for the treatment of segmental and generalized dystonia in young patients (level A, class I-II evidence); (iii) all other methods of pharmacological intervention for generalized or focal dystonia, including botulinum toxin injections, have not been confirmed as being effective according to accepted evidence-based criteria (level U, class IV studies)."
07/01/2012 - "Exceptions are the use of botulinum toxin in patients with cervical dystonia, some forms of cranial dystonia (in particular, blepharospasm) and writer's cramp; deep brain stimulation of the pallidum in generalized and segmental dystonia; and high-dose trihexyphenidyl in young patients with segmental and generalized dystonia. "
|9.||Tetrabenazine (Nitoman)FDA Link
01/01/1981 - "When tetrabenazine was administered for blepharospasm, only two of six cases showed partial improvement with more severe side effects."
04/01/2014 - "Usefulness of FEES and responsiveness to tetrabenazine in a case of blepharospasm associated with dystonic-tremorous dsyphagia."
04/01/1983 - "Tetrabenazine, lithium, and trihexyphenidyl were most useful for the treatment of oromandibular dystonia, and clonazepam was useful in some patients with blepharospasm."
|10.||Benign essential blepharospasmIBA
02/15/2011 - "Psychogenic blepharospasm is difficult to distinguish clinically from benign essential blepharospasm (BEB). "
03/01/2014 - "To study the influence of blepharospasm on dry eye disease by analyzing the clinical features, tear cytokine, and treatment response of patients with dry eye disease accompanied by benign essential blepharospasm. "
05/01/2010 - "Orbicularis oculi myo-osseous fixation: a new treatment for benign essential blepharospasm and blepharospasm associated with diffuse facial dystonia (meige syndrome)."
09/01/1998 - "To investigate causes, associations, and results of treatment with blepharospasm, 1,653 patients were evaluated by extensive questionnaires to study blepharospasm and long-term results of treatment with the full myectomy operation, botulinum-A toxin, drug therapy, and help from the Benign Essential Blepharospasm Research Foundation (BEBRF). "
01/01/2001 - "In blepharospasm, injections are performed in the periorbital part of the orbicularis oculi muscle with good results for 12-14 weeks. "
01/01/1990 - "Visual function improved in the majority of patients with blepharospasm, and the improvement was sustained for up to 40 sets of injections. "
01/01/2014 - "BoNT injections were effective with comparable benefits seen in both primary and secondary blepharospasm populations. "
03/01/2013 - "Injectable botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the principal effective treatment for blepharospasm (BSP). "
12/01/1991 - "Three patients with blepharospasm were in remission and required no further treatment, after a series of six, four, and three injections. "
03/01/2013 - "This suggests that electroacupuncture may be similarly effective in treating other cases of blepharospasm."
03/01/2013 - "While this study involved only 1 patient, it demonstrates the effectiveness of electroacupuncture as a treatment for blepharospasm in a case where the patient was experiencing debilitating symptoms, which conventional allopathic treatment had failed to alleviate. "
01/01/2000 - "Frontalis suspension combined with blepharoplasty as an effective treatment for blepharospasm associated with apraxia of eyelid opening."
01/01/2007 - "One patient each (6% each) had retraction from graft-versus-host disease, after blepharoplasty, and after orbicularis oculi myectomy for blepharospasm. "
04/01/1985 - "Selective facial neurectomy in combination with bilateral musculocutaneous resection, plication brow lift, upper lid blepharoplasty, and limited rhytidectomy was performed on 18 patients with essential blepharospasm, eight with hemifacial spasm, and two with CNS vascular compression malformations. "
11/01/1990 - "Other factors included the use of hynotics, cosmetic blepharoplasty, botulinum toxin injection for blepharospasm, facial palsy, dysthyroid eye disease and cicatrising skin disease of the lids. "
01/01/2002 - "Although the beneficial effect of subcutaneous injections of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is well known in both blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm, the position of the injection sites around the orbicularis oculi may influence the effectiveness and side effects. "
08/01/1999 - "No emotional lability was found in this patient, but he did demonstrate severe bilateral postoperative pretarsal blepharospasm (apraxia of eyelid opening), which interfered with walking and which required treatment with high-dose subcutaneous injections of botulinum toxin. "
09/01/2002 - "The subcutaneous injection of type A botulinum toxin, until now used only for the treatment of blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm, has shown to be a useful treatment for localized hyperhidrosis. "
09/01/1985 - "Anesthesia of the supraorbital nerves abolished muscle responses to stretch and improved the blepharospasm."
10/01/1998 - "The ophthalmologist evaluated anesthesia negatively if the eye did not remain fixed in the center, if blepharospasm appeared or if the anterior chamber of the eye collapsed. "
01/01/2007 - "We describe a simple technique that reduces the effect of blepharospasm in the presence of sub-Tenon's or topical anesthesia without the administration of a lid block or a reduction in adequate analgesia."