|1.||Glioblastoma (Glioblastoma Multiforme)
|4.||Astrocytoma (Pilocytic Astrocytoma)
|1.||von Deimling, Andreas: 21 articles (12/2015 - 08/2002)|
|2.||Reifenberger, Guido: 19 articles (08/2013 - 10/2002)|
|3.||Ohgaki, Hiroko: 18 articles (10/2013 - 03/2002)|
|4.||Jacobson, Kenneth A: 17 articles (05/2014 - 01/2002)|
|5.||Weller, Michael: 16 articles (12/2013 - 10/2002)|
|6.||Rutka, James T: 15 articles (11/2015 - 05/2002)|
|7.||Eberhart, Charles G: 15 articles (02/2015 - 07/2004)|
|8.||Gutmann, David H: 15 articles (10/2013 - 02/2002)|
|9.||Guha, Abhijit: 15 articles (03/2013 - 03/2002)|
|10.||Nakahata, Norimichi: 15 articles (03/2013 - 05/2002)|
|1.||temozolomide (Temodar)FDA LinkGeneric
09/01/2006 - "The patient is currently alive but with recurrent astrocytoma after a complete remission on temozolomide monotherapy. "
01/01/2009 - "Temozolomide: The evidence for its therapeutic efficacy in malignant astrocytomas."
08/01/2001 - "A large, multicenter, single-arm trial (N = 162) showed an impressive response rate for patients with relapsed anaplastic astrocytoma receiving temozolomide, and patients maintained or improved their quality of life compared with baseline values. "
09/01/2000 - "One of the objectives of this phase II study was to determine whether temozolomide (TMZ) improved the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). "
07/01/2000 - "Temodar offers promise for treating astrocytomas."
|2.||Etoposide (VP 16)FDA LinkGeneric
04/01/1997 - "Oral etoposide was well tolerated, produced modest toxicity, and had apparent activity in this small cohort of children with recurrent juvenile pilocytic cerebellar astrocytomas."
04/01/1997 - "The purpose of this investigation was to assess the toxicity and activity of chronic oral etoposide in the management of children with recurrent juvenile pilocytic cerebellar astrocytomas. "
04/01/1997 - "Twelve children with recurrent juvenile pilocytic cerebellar astrocytomas, refractory to surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were treated with chronic oral etoposide. "
01/01/1999 - "Intravenous etoposide has a low level of activity in the treatment of recurrent low grade astrocytomas and medulloblastoma or PNET. "
02/01/1996 - "Prolonged low-dose oral VP16 is modestly effective treatment for patients with recurrent malignant glioma and is more effective for anaplastic astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma than glioblastoma multiforme."
|3.||Sirolimus (Rapamycin)FDA Link
08/01/2010 - "Beneficial effects of sirolimus against TSC were detected in the skin, along with improved spirometric measurements and an arrest of astrocytoma progression. "
09/01/2015 - "Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition involves complex signaling pathways inducing subependymal giant cell astrocytoma shrinkage. "
09/01/2015 - "In this one individual, rapamycin therapy did not change the histopathological characteristics of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. "
09/01/2015 - "This girl's histopathological findings were consistent with subependymal giant cell astrocytomas with no exposure to mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. "
09/01/2015 - "Pathological Findings of a Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma Following Treatment With Rapamycin."
|4.||Carboplatin (JM8)FDA LinkGeneric
05/01/2002 - "In our study, we describe clinical features and diagnostic procedures of carboplatin-associated reactions in children affected by low-grade astrocytoma and treated with multiple courses of carboplatin. "
09/01/2005 - "Spinal leptomeningeal biopsy revealed a pilocytic astrocytoma WHO grade I. Despite chemotherapy with vincristin and carboplatin, the patient died 2 months after admission. "
11/01/1996 - "An 8-year-old boy was treated for an astrocytoma by monthly intravenous injections of carboplatin. "
05/01/2001 - "Its demonstrated efficacy as a sensitizer in other solid tumors led to this clinical trial of carboplatin as a radiation sensitizer in the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). "
11/01/2004 - "Carboplatin and vincristine appeared to be effective, safe therapy for those with low-grade astrocytomas of the cord."
|5.||DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA
07/01/2009 - "In the present study, DNA from 28 pediatric low-grade astrocytomas was analyzed using Illumina HumanHap550K single-nucleotide polymorphism oligonucleotide arrays. "
06/01/2002 - "This study was extended by sequencing 10 DNA samples of diffuse astrocytomas (World Health Organisation grade II) and corresponding blood samples. "
09/01/1991 - "[Quantitative study on DNA content and nucleolar organiser regions in astrocytoma]."
10/01/1988 - "The case of a 1-year-old girl with primary malignant astrocytoma of the cerebellum is presented with special reference to ultramicroscopic study and cytofluorometric DNA analysis. "
03/01/2014 - "Pediatric brainstem GGs (n = 13), non-brainstem GGs (n = 11) and brainstem pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) (n = 8) were screened by standard Sanger DNA sequencing of BRAF exon 15. "
|6.||Carmustine (FIVB)FDA Link
01/01/2012 - "The aim of this work was to review the evidence for the use of carmustine implants in the management of malignant astrocytoma (World Health Organization grades III and IV), including newly diagnosed and recurrent disease, especially in the setting of a standard of care that has changed since the randomized trials were completed. "
07/01/1997 - "This trial found no evidence of differences in treatment efficacy when either DBD or BCNU is combined with radiation therapy for patients with high-grade astrocytoma."
07/01/1997 - "We performed a randomized trial to compare survival distributions and toxicity of radiation therapy (RT) and DBD with RT and BCNU in patients with high-grade astrocytoma. "
04/01/1978 - "A microtiter assay was used to study the sensitivity of 24 cultured human astrocytomas to the chemotherapeutic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1 nitrosourea (BCNU). "
09/01/2005 - "These findings suggest that enhanced sensitivity to BCNU and TMZ is a general property of human astrocytic glioma cells in which p53 was disrupted. "
|7.||Vincristine (Oncovin)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/1988 - "Severe visual loss after a single dose of vincristine in a patient with spinal cord astrocytoma."
08/01/1976 - "Eight of the 16 patients who received four or more doses of vincristine showed significant objective responses; these included patients with high-and low-grade astrocytomas and patients with medulloblastoma. "
11/01/2010 - "Although long-term outcome is yet to be determined, the administration of combined cisplatin and vincristine treatment seems to be an effective regimen for a pilomyxoid astrocytoma."
11/01/2004 - "Carboplatin and vincristine appeared to be effective, safe therapy for those with low-grade astrocytomas of the cord."
07/01/2007 - "Protocol IV (vincristine and carboplatin) in 4 children with astrocytoma fibrillare and astrocytoma pilocyticum. "
05/01/2008 - "Further, there were distinct differences in protein expression between pediatric and adult HGAs suggesting that EGFR kinase inhibitors may not be beneficial for treatment of HGA in the pediatric age group and pointing to the need to study pediatric astrocytomas as distinct entities from adult astrocytomas."
04/09/2013 - "Our data support the development of targeted treatment paradigms for BRAF-altered pediatric astrocytomas and also demonstrate that therapies must be tailored to the specific mutational context and distinct mechanisms of action of the mutant kinase."
05/29/2012 - "Cooperative interactions of BRAFV600E kinase and CDKN2A locus deficiency in pediatric malignant astrocytoma as a basis for rational therapy."
04/01/2011 - "An activated mutant BRAF kinase domain is sufficient to induce pilocytic astrocytoma in mice."
06/01/2009 - "We report genetic aberrations that activate the ERK/MAP kinase pathway in 100% of posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas, with a high frequency of gene fusions between KIAA1549 and BRAF among these tumours. "
|9.||Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor)IBA
08/22/2014 - "We tested a well-established model, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced cell death in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. "
12/01/2009 - "These findings thus indicate that sPLA(2)-IIA and TNFalpha transduction pathways interact to modulate inflammatory responses and provide additional insights about the capacity of sPLA(2)-IIA to promote apoptosis resistance in astrocytoma cells."
12/01/2009 - "Inflammatory protein sPLA(2)-IIA abrogates TNFalpha-induced apoptosis in human astroglioma cells: Crucial role of ERK."
05/01/2004 - "Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptotic cell death as well as expression of proinflammatory genes such as CXCL8 in malignant human astrocytoma cells. "
06/01/2003 - "P2Y6 nucleotide receptor activates PKC to protect 1321N1 astrocytoma cells against tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis."
|10.||Cisplatin (Platino)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/1983 - "Phase II study of cisplatin in recurrent astrocytomas in adults: a Southwest Oncology Group Study."
10/06/2015 - "We measured effects of inhibition of ten DNA-repair genes expression using siRNAs on astrocytoma cell response to cisplatin (CDDP) and TMZ. "
07/04/2005 - "On the other hand, [Pt(HPxSC)Cl(3)] at 200 microM did not affect the viability of rat primary astrocytes, unlike the established anticancer drug cisplatin, which displayed high toxicity toward both astrocytoma cells (IC(50), 15 microM) and primary astrocytes (IC(50), 20 microM). "
01/01/1987 - "Routes and schedules which allow a higher peak serum concentration of cisplatin (such as subselective intracerebral artery infusion) may be necessary to achieve greater central nervous system drug penetration and to maximally exploit cisplatin in the treatment of astrocytoma."
01/01/1987 - "Treatment of astrocytoma with a 5-day cisplatin infusion."
|1.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
02/15/1995 - "Chemotherapy appears to be effective primary adjuvant treatment for some very young children with anaplastic astrocytomas. "
01/01/1994 - "The study suggests that malignant astrocytoma can be successfully eradicated with surgery, irradiation, IFN-alpha and chemotherapy. "
07/01/2007 - "Based on randomized data available, chemotherapy has consistently failed to improve the outcome of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, while a meta-analysis showed a small, but significant improvement in survival favouring the use of chemotherapy. "
05/01/2001 - "t-MDS developed four and one-half years after successful therapy (resection, radiation and chemotherapy) administered for a cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma in a 34-year-old patient. "
12/01/2001 - "Chemotherapy for pilocytic astrocytomas, particularly in young children (for whom radiation therapy is avoided), appears to be effective in the treatment of a subset of patients. "
05/01/1989 - "Total surgical removal is the most important factor in the management of well-differentiated astrocytomas, whereas the efficacy of postoperative radiotherapy still needs to be confirmed by prospective and randomized studies. "
07/01/1998 - "Younger age, female sex and the extent of surgical resection are important prognostic factors in the management of low-grade astrocytomas, whereas the efficacy of postoperative radiotherapy needs further evaluation. "
11/01/1995 - "New therapeutic strategies are emerging, however, based on technologic advances in surgery and radiotherapy, improved understanding of the molecular, cellular, and immunobiology of astrocytomas, and advances in gene therapy, It is likely that these new strategies will result in significant progress in the treatment of HGA in the next decade."
01/01/1993 - "A major improvement in computer tomography (CT) scan was noted in 5/10 patients with astrocytomas recurrent after radiotherapy, with a major clinical improvement but minor improvement on CT scan in one further patient. "
12/01/2005 - "Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy is well tolerated and effective in patients with recurrent grade III astrocytomas."
02/01/2008 - "Results of a phase I dendritic cell vaccine trial for malignant astrocytoma: potential interaction with adjuvant chemotherapy."
01/15/2001 - "Meta-analyses of the published literature suggest a survival benefit to adjuvant chemotherapy for high-grade astrocytoma, which individual small trials have been unable to demonstrate reliably. "
07/01/2011 - "The need for radical surgery, entire neuroaxis radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy is suggested in the management of malignant spinal cord astrocytoma to prevent dissemination."
01/01/2007 - "The first patient was a 16-month-old girl who presented with a grade III intramedullary astrocytoma that rapidly progressed after surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. "
11/20/2006 - "Anaplastic astrocytomas should be treated with postoperative radiation therapy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. "
|4.||Combination Drug Therapy (Combination Chemotherapy)
01/01/2008 - "Prospective single-arm study of 72 Gy hyperfractionated radiation therapy and combination chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytomas."
12/01/2000 - "This result suggests that combination chemotherapy may offer treatment modalities for low grade astrocytoma."
04/01/1997 - "We studied the toxicity and efficacy of adding in sequence 4 resistance modulators to combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and poor prognosis anaplastic astrocytomas. "
02/17/1983 - "Thirty-nine patients with malignant gliomas (36 glioblastomas, 3 astrocytomas grade III; age median 52.5) were treated after surgery by combination chemotherapy followed by irradiation. "
10/01/1987 - "Nineteen patients with biopsy-proven high-grade astrocytomas received as initial treatment whole-brain radiation and combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 1,000 mg/m2/24 h as a continuous infusion for 96 h, and bolus cisdiamminedichloroplatinum II (CDDP), 100 mg/m2. "
01/01/2008 - "Dietary restriction of the high fat/low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD-R) reduces glycolysis and is effective in managing experimental mouse and human astrocytomas. "
01/01/2008 - "The results suggest that management of malignant astrocytoma with restricted ketogenic diets could be enhanced when combined with drugs that inhibit glycolysis."
09/01/2009 - "This approach to brain cancer management is supported from recent studies in orthotopic mouse brain tumor models and in human pediatric astrocytoma treated with calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet. "
01/01/2007 - "This study evaluated the efficacy of KetoCal, a new nutritionally balanced high fat/low carbohydrate ketogenic diet for children with epilepsy, on the growth and vascularity of a malignant mouse astrocytoma (CT-2A) and a human malignant glioma (U87-MG). "
10/21/2005 - "The approach focuses more on the genomic flexibility of normal cells than on the genomic defects of tumor cells and is supported from recent studies in orthotopic mouse brain tumor models and in human pediatric astrocytoma treated with dietary energy restriction and the ketogenic diet."