|1.||Koenig, Michel: 6 articles (01/2015 - 09/2003)|
|2.||Lavin, Martin F: 6 articles (01/2014 - 06/2007)|
|3.||Koenig, M: 6 articles (01/2011 - 02/2001)|
|4.||Becherel, Olivier J: 5 articles (01/2014 - 06/2007)|
|5.||Onodera, Osamu: 5 articles (05/2011 - 03/2007)|
|6.||Anheim, M: 4 articles (05/2011 - 10/2009)|
|7.||Maassen, Ben: 4 articles (04/2003 - 09/2002)|
|8.||Strand, Edythe A: 3 articles (11/2014 - 05/2010)|
|9.||Duffy, Joseph R: 3 articles (11/2014 - 12/2008)|
|10.||Josephs, Keith A: 3 articles (11/2014 - 12/2008)|
|1.||Carbamazepine (Tegretol)FDA LinkGeneric
05/01/1998 - "Carbamazepine responsive epileptic oral motor and ocular motor apraxia."
05/01/1998 - "Apraxia in three patients (Group 1) with new-onset partial seizures and epileptiform discharges on EEG improved with carbamazepine. "
05/01/1998 - "Four patients (Group 2) without seizures and nonepileptiform EEG findings had no change in apraxia after a trial of carbamazepine. "
|2.||Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum Toxin)IBA
01/01/2007 - "We studied the effect of injecting botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) into the pars ciliaris--also known as Riolan's muscle--of patients with eyelid apraxia (ELA). "
04/01/2002 - "Botulinum toxin therapy for apraxia of lid opening."
01/01/2014 - "Patients with apraxia of eyelid opening and unresponsive to botulinum toxin injections were studied. "
03/01/2012 - "In this report, we present two patients with progressive supranuclear palsy who failed to respond to botulinum toxin because they had underlying apraxia of lid opening. "
03/01/2012 - "They should not be considered failure of treatment with botulinum toxin, as a significant number of these patients have underlying apraxia of eyelid opening in addition to blepharospasm, which may be the cause of failure to respond to botulinum toxin. "
|3.||Dexamethasone (Maxidex)FDA LinkGeneric
|4.||Desipramine (Pertofrane)FDA LinkGeneric
|5.||Amitriptyline (Elavil)FDA LinkGeneric
|6.||Amantadine (Aman)FDA LinkGeneric
|7.||TNFR-Fc fusion protein (etanercept)FDA Link
05/01/2014 - "We report that a single dose of perispinal etanercept produced an immediate, profound, and sustained improvement in expressive aphasia, speech apraxia, and left hemiparesis in a patient with chronic, intractable, debilitating neurological dysfunction present for more than 3 years after acute brain injury. "
|8.||aripiprazole (Abilify)FDA Link
|9.||amsonic acid (DAS)IBA
04/01/2003 - "In this study the hypothesis of motor programming involvement in developmental apraxia of speech (DAS) was investigated by studying articulatory compensation. "
01/01/2003 - "The aim of the present study was to investigate whether children with developmental apraxia of speech (DAS) show a deficit in planning syllables in speech production. "
09/01/2002 - "The aim of this study was to enhance our insight into the underlying deficit in developmental apraxia of speech (DAS). "
09/20/2001 - "The study aimed at describing the language and communication abilities of a child diagnosed with Developmental Apraxia of Speech (DAS), who used a Macaw Digital voice output device. "
04/01/1997 - "Perspectives in psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, and developmental biolinguistics lead to five working hypotheses pending validation in ongoing studies: (a) inappropriate stress is a diagnostic marker for at least one subtype of DAS, (b) the psycholinguistic loci of inappropriate stress in this subtype of DAS are in phonological representational processes, (c) the proximal origin of this subtype of DAS is a neurogenically specific deficit, (d) the distal origin of this form of DAS is an inherited genetic polymorphism, and (e) significant differences between acquired apraxia of speech in adults and findings for this subtype of DAS call into question the inference that it is an apractic, motor speech disorder. "
01/01/2011 - "Our study provides a better understanding of the nature of DCD, and sheds light on its etiology and brain dysfunction, so as to identify subtypes of developmental DCD/dyspraxia with specific clinical criteria."
01/01/2011 - "Our study provides a better understanding of the nature of DCD and its etiology, and identifies subtypes of dyspraxia. "
10/01/2013 - "This cross-sectional study was conducted among 27 youngsters with DCD: 9 having developmental dyspraxia and 18 having mixed dyspraxia, compared to 27 same-age peers with TD. "
01/01/2012 - "Both classifiers yielded a relevant subset of items impairments that altogether accounted for a sharp discrimination between three DCD subtypes: ideomotor, visual-spatial and constructional, and mixt dyspraxia. "
07/01/2011 - "The results have a bearing on our understanding of the relationship of developmental dyspraxia to DCD, as well as of the issue of developmental delay vs. pathology."
|1.||Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
07/01/2012 - "Although currently only a few randomized controlled studies investigate the efficacy of different apraxia treatments, the gesture training suggested by Smania and colleagues can be recommended for the therapy of apraxia, the effects of which were shown to extend to activities of daily living and to persist for at least 2 months after completion of the training. "
12/12/2006 - "Apraxia treatment specifically improved praxic function and ADL."
01/01/2014 - "Firstly, we summarize the behavioral studies investigating the impact of apraxia and other comorbidity syndromes, such as neglect or visual extinction, on ADL. "
12/01/2006 - "During the study period of 20 weeks, patients showed small improvements in apraxia (standardized mean differences of 0.19 and 0.33) and medium-sized improvements in ADL functioning (standardized mean differences from 0.37 to 0.61). "
01/01/2014 - "The proposed platform was developed within the CogWatch project, with the intent of fostering independence in activities of daily living in patients with apraxia and action disorganization syndrome. "
|2.||Psychology Biofeedback (Biofeedback)
11/01/2013 - "The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment program that includes ultrasound biofeedback for children with persisting speech sound errors associated with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). "
11/01/2013 - "Ultrasound biofeedback treatment for persisting childhood apraxia of speech."
01/01/2007 - "Influence of continual biofeedback on jaw pursuit-tracking in healthy adults and in adults with apraxia plus aphasia."
12/01/1999 - "Although preliminary, the findings suggest that visual biofeedback concerning tongue-tip position can be used to treat nonspeech oral and (to a lesser extent) speech motor behavior in adults with Broca's aphasia and apraxia of speech."
08/01/1999 - "Bilateral simultaneous pallidotomy may be followed by emotional, behavioral, and cognitive deficits such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and loss of psychic autoactivation-abulia, as well as disabling corticobulbar dysfunction and apraxia of eyelid opening, in addition to previously described motor and visual field deficits, which make this surgery undesirable even though significant improvement in motor deficits can be achieved."
03/01/2007 - "Improvement in functional health was assessed using the Blepharospasm Disability Scale (BDS) in five consecutive patients with apraxia of eyelid opening treated with wire loops affixed behind ordinary spectacles (Lundie loops) and modified to provide pressure on the brow as a stimulus to keep the eyelids elevated. "