|1.||Spontaneous Abortion (Miscarriage)
|5.||Fetal Growth Retardation (Intrauterine Growth Retardation)
|1.||Koren, Gideon: 27 articles (10/2015 - 01/2002)|
|2.||Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi: 13 articles (01/2015 - 03/2003)|
|3.||Einarson, Adrienne: 13 articles (07/2014 - 03/2003)|
|4.||Clark, David A: 13 articles (09/2013 - 05/2002)|
|5.||Li, Da-Jin: 12 articles (01/2015 - 09/2004)|
|6.||Minakami, Hisanori: 12 articles (10/2014 - 02/2003)|
|7.||Olsen, Jørn: 12 articles (09/2014 - 06/2002)|
|8.||Yamada, Hideto: 11 articles (03/2015 - 02/2003)|
|9.||Kim, Nam Keun: 11 articles (09/2014 - 01/2006)|
|10.||Toth, Bettina: 10 articles (05/2015 - 02/2008)|
|1.||Misoprostol (Cytotec)FDA LinkGeneric
02/01/2004 - "We aimed to determine whether outpatient treatment of miscarriage with vaginal misoprostol is more effective than expectant management in reducing the need for surgical evacuation of retained products of conception (ERPC). "
01/01/2014 - "Misoprostol (Cytotec) is recognised to be effective for many gynaecological indications including termination of pregnancy, management of miscarriage and postpartum haemorrhage. "
02/01/2010 - "Sublingual misoprostol is as effective as vaginal misoprostol for medical management of missed miscarriage but is associated with an increased risk of side effects especially an unpleasant taste."
12/01/2006 - "Medical management using misoprostol is effective for the management of miscarriages. "
01/01/2004 - "We concluded that a single dose of 400 microg of oral misoprostol was an effective treatment for women presenting with an incomplete miscarriage."
02/01/1988 - "The findings in this study support the existence of luteal phase defect as a clinically significant entity in recurrent first-trimester spontaneous abortion and one that can be treated successfully with the administration of progesterone. "
09/01/2015 - "In both groups, the subjects improved significantly but, in general, a better and faster evolution in the major signs of threatened miscarriage was observed in the subjects treated with ALA and Progesterone. "
01/01/2010 - "Compared to controls, i.e., progesterone therapy alone, the injection of paternal lymphocytes intradermally improved miscarriage rates and improved live delivered pregnancy rates per embryo transfer. "
01/01/2015 - "Low progesterone level was a very strong predictor of miscarriage risk in our study despite previous concerns about its pulsatile secretion. "
01/01/2015 - "Study results (OR, 95% CI) showed that higher levels of progesterone (0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.94) and PIBF (0.99, 95% CI 0.98-0.99) were associated with lower risk of miscarriage. "
12/01/2001 - "The aims of this study were to investigate the efficacy of massive intravenous immunoglobulin (MIVIg) treatment for women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) of unexplained etiology, and to investigate changes in peripheral natural killer (NK) cell activity and subsets. "
09/01/1998 - "The aim of this trial was to investigate the efficacy of massive i.v. immunoglobulin (MIVIg) treatment for women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) due to unexplained aetiology. "
02/01/2003 - "The aim of this study was to investigate changes in peripheral blood Th1/Th2 cytokine levels and lymphocyte ratios after massive intravenous immunoglobulin (MIVIg) treatment for women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) of unexplained etiology. "
10/01/1995 - "The aim of this trial was to investigate whether infusions of i.v. immunoglobulins (Ig) to women with secondary recurrent spontaneous abortions and recurrent second trimester spontaneous abortions can increase the rate of successful pregnancy. "
10/01/1995 - "Placebo-controlled trial of treatment of unexplained secondary recurrent spontaneous abortions and recurrent late spontaneous abortions with i.v. immunoglobulin."
|4.||Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIG)FDA Link
05/01/2003 - "The results confirm the efficacy of IVIG in pregnant patients with recurrent spontaneous abortions in whom likelihood of immunological pattern of pregnancy failures is high."
10/01/2001 - "These figures are especially significant considering the doubt concerning the efficacy of IVIG in patients with three miscarriages and therefore a relatively good prognosis."
09/01/1999 - "Although the number of previous miscarriages and female age were both negative prognostic factors for successful outcome, there was no significant improvement in successful pregnancy or live birth rate with IVIG. "
02/01/1998 - "Based on this trial and three similar trials in the literature, a multicentered trial is needed to determine conclusively whether IVIG is effective in the treatment of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion."
01/01/2015 - "She has had multiple failed in vitro fertilization trials and 13 first-trimester missed miscarriages terminating at 6-7 weeks, all without IVIG therapy. "
|5.||Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2011 - "No significant differences were found in the meta-analysis of studies investigating the effect of aspirin compared with control on live birth rate (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.15; three studies and 1053 participants), clinical pregnancy rate (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.17; 10 studies and 2142 participants), ectopic and miscarriage rates (RR 1.86, 95% CI 0.75 to 4.63; RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.77) respectively (three and five studies involving 1135 and 1497 participants). "
07/01/2006 - "The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between aspirin use and miscarriage. "
02/01/2003 - "The risk for miscarriage did not differ between women treated with aspirin andplacebo (seven studies; RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.71-119). "
10/01/2000 - "The aim of this study was to assess the value of low dose aspirin (75 mg daily) in improving the subsequent livebirth rate amongst women with either unexplained recurrent early miscarriage (<13 weeks gestation; n = 805) or unexplained late pregnancy loss (n = 250). "
10/01/2012 - "Pregnancy rates were significantly increased in patients randomized to low-dose aspirin (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.39), but miscarriage rates were not (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.82, 1.68). "
|6.||Metformin (Glucophage)FDA LinkGeneric
09/01/2002 - "Moreover, preliminary evidence indicates that metformin may also be effective in decreasing the risk of early spontaneous miscarriage in women with PCOS. "
02/01/2013 - "This study was a secondary subanalysis of a previously conducted prospective multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study on the effects of metformin on miscarriage, pregnancy, and miscarriage rates. "
06/01/2011 - "This study included 107 women who were seeking ART under the pretreatment of metformin for PCOS, confirmed IR, recurrent spontaneous miscarriages (RSA) or other fertility disorders. "
06/01/2004 - "The use of metformin in early pregnancy for reducing the risk of miscarriage should be avoided outside of the context of properly designed prospective randomized trials. "
11/01/2015 - "No significant differences were recorded between metformin and placebo groups for rates of pregnancy (risk ratio [RR] 1.11, 95% CI 0.92-1.33), live birth (RR 1.12, 0.92-1.36), spontaneous abortion (RR 1.00, 0.60-1.67), or multiple pregnancy (RR 0.96, 0.47-1.96). "
|7.||Prostaglandins D (PGD)IBA
07/01/2007 - "In a parallel controlled study, PGD with NRR significantly improved implantation rates and reduced spontaneous abortions, showing that PGD is more efficient in selecting embryos that will reach term."
02/01/2015 - "This outcome is significantly different from that of our 2,064 PGD cycle series without concomitant 24-AT, including improved pregnancy (68.4% vs. 45.4%) and 3-fold spontaneous abortion reduction (5.5% vs. 15%) rates. "
07/01/2007 - "PGD with NRR significantly improved implantation rates, from 20% to 31%, and reduced spontaneous abortions from 27% to 6%. "
03/01/2002 - "PGD of translocations has been approached through a variety of methods, here reviewed, and has resulted in a significant reduction in spontaneous abortions. "
06/01/2000 - "PGD of translocations achieves a statistically significant reduction in spontaneous abortion, both for polar-body and blastomere biopsy cases. "
|8.||Mifepristone (RU 486)FDA Link
06/01/2002 - "The combination of mifepristone and prostaglandin also offers a medical method for management of miscarriages. "
04/01/2002 - "Four women had complete miscarriage with mifepristone alone. "
05/01/1998 - "Clients frequently portrayed mifepristone abortion as a better moral choice than surgical abortion--in some cases even depicting it as not-really-an-abortion but rather as a miscarriage. "
10/04/1993 - "Medical management of miscarriage with RU486."
09/06/1993 - "Medical management of miscarriage with RU486."
|9.||Clomiphene (Clomifene)FDA LinkGeneric
07/01/1996 - "For clomiphene resistant patients, laparoscopic techniques have many advantages over gonadotrophin therapy including serial repetitive ovulation events, no increased risk of ovarian hyperstimulation or multiple pregnancies and a lower incidence of spontaneous abortion, but these procedures must not be considered as the first line treatment for the anovulatory patient with PCOS, for whom clomiphene citrate remains the first choice mode of therapy."
12/01/1996 - "The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of clomiphene results in a higher incidence of spontaneous abortion than occurs naturally in subfertile patients. "
07/01/1988 - "This study examines the frequency of spontaneous abortions in pregnancies achieved by artificial inseminations with donor semen (AID), with special respect to the use of cryopreserved semen and ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. "
12/01/2012 - "Meta-analysis indicated that CHM significantly increased the pregnancy rate (odds ratio [OR] 3.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.50-3.88) and reduced the miscarriage rate (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.10-0.41) compared to clomiphene. "
01/01/2012 - "There was no evidence of a significant difference in rates of clinical pregnancy, live birth or miscarriage in women with clomiphene-resistant PCOS undergoing LOD compared to other medical treatments. "
12/01/2015 - "The present study reveals that patients with anti-TPO antibodies showed no significant differences in fertilization, implantation, pregnancy rates, live birth rates and no higher risk for miscarriage following IVF-ET when compared with those negative for anti-thyroid antibodies."
02/01/2014 - "Although numerous studies indicated a link between antithyroid antibodies and recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA), consensus on the treatment of this condition is still lacking. "
02/01/2011 - "The presence of such antibodies has been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, in particular miscarriage and pre-term delivery, even though the strength of these associations varies widely from one study to another. "
03/01/2010 - "The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of biphospholipid antibodies in pregnant women with recurrent spontaneous abortions. "
03/01/2007 - "Additionally, several studies have shown that thyroid autoimmunity (detection of anti peroxydase antibodies) may account for the occurrence of repetitive miscarriages. "
04/01/2013 - "Immunotherapy with paternal lymphocytes plays an important role in preventing recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and is an effective treatment for it. "
11/01/1993 - "To determine the efficacy of immunotherapy as treatment for recurrent spontaneous abortion (three or more consecutive abortions without an intervening pregnancy of more than 20 weeks' gestation) using meta-analysis. "
01/01/2015 - "Female third party lymphocytes are effective for immunotherapy of patients with unexplained primary recurrent spontaneous abortion: A retrospective analysis of outcomes."
10/01/2003 - "[Immunotherapy as an effective treatment of recurrent spontaneous abortion--own experience]."
04/01/2005 - "Our data might provide an enhanced understanding of the maternal-fetal immune relationship and be helpful in clinical trials for immunotherapy of recurrent spontaneous abortion."
|2.||Homologous Transplantation (Allograft)
01/01/2015 - "Th1 and Th17 cells, known to be responsible for acute allograft rejection, could be involved in miscarriage and Th2 cells together with regulatory CD4+ T cells, known to be involved in allograft tolerance, could be responsible, at least in part, for the success of pregnancy. "
03/01/1986 - "The mammalian fetus has been viewed as an unusually successful type of "allograft" and "unexplained" spontaneous abortion as a possible example of maternal rejection. "
02/01/1984 - "It is concluded that T-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood do not demonstrate a phenotypic abnormality that would account for the non-rejection of the fetal allograft; however, women with chronic spontaneous abortion may have abnormal B-cell differentiation or T-cell activation that mediates chronic spontaneous abortion."
03/01/1983 - "Thirteen pregnancies in ten patients with homograft cardiac valves resulted in 11 healthy infants, one spontaneous abortion, one elective termination of pregnancy, and the stillbirth of one member of a twin pregnancy. "
09/15/1994 - "On the other hand, the immunosuppressive effects produced by the infusion of allogeneic leukocytes might be beneficial for some patients, ie, for the maintenance of kidney allografts, in possibly reducing the relapse rate in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, and in ameliorating recurrent spontaneous abortion. "
|3.||Cesarean Section (Caesarean Section)
10/01/2015 - "Relative risk (RR) of stillbirth (2.51), miscarriage (1.28) and Caesarean section (C-section) (1.77) was significantly greater with T2DM versus non-diabetes. "
04/01/2006 - "Under the conditions of a three-month stress imposed by the bombing, significantly increased were the incidence of spontaneous abortion and vaginal delivery following the previous Cesarean section, while the incidence of Cesarean section and post-term delivery were decreased, but the incidence of perinatal outcome was paradoxically improved. "
08/01/2013 - "The study included 35 subjects: 20 postpartum (57.1%), 10 caesarean and post-caesarean section (28.5%), and 5 post-miscarriage (14.2%). "
12/01/1993 - "Study group mothers were significantly more likely than all NSW mothers to have had a spontaneous abortion in the previous pregnancy (P < 0.01), a pre-existing medical condition or an obstetric complication in this pregnancy, or a Caesarean section for this delivery (P < 0.001). "
12/01/2015 - "In Palestine, maternal morbidity can be prevented by promoting a rational use of cesarean section, avoiding unnecessary medicalization, reducing unwanted pregnancies and updating practices of providers related to abortion/miscarriage care."
|4.||Dilatation and Curettage (D&C)
04/01/2010 - "The D/C ratio in the miscarriage group was also significantly greater than that for the live-birth group. "
01/14/1995 - "In a prospective randomised trial we compared the clinical results after either expectant management or D&C, for miscarriages of less than 13 weeks' gestation in which transvaginal ultrasound examination showed intrauterine tissue and/or blood clots with a diameter 15-50 mm. 103 patients were randomised to expectant management and spontaneous resolution of pregnancy occurred within 3 days in 81 cases (79%). "
08/01/1996 - "In a prospective randomized trial, we compared psychological reactions and morbidity, after either expectant management or D&C, for miscarriages of < 13 weeks gestation in which a transvaginal ultrasound examination showed intrauterine tissue and/or blood clots with an antero-posterior diameter of between 15 and 50 mm. Of the 86 patients included, 58 were randomized to expectant management and 28 to primary D&C. "
01/14/1995 - "This study shows that expectant management of selected cases of spontaneous abortion has a similar outcome to D&C."
01/01/2016 - "Despite the fact that confounding cannot be excluded, these data warrant caution in the use of D&C for miscarriage and termination of pregnancy, the more so since less invasive options are available. "
|5.||Intrauterine Devices (Intrauterine Device)
06/01/2001 - "This study was carried out at Alhussein University Hospital and Elmonera General Hospital to assess the safety and efficacy of intrauterine device (IUD) insertion immediately after spontaneous abortion compared with insertion 2 weeks after abortion. "
11/01/2001 - "Assess the safety and efficacy of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) insertion immediately after induced or spontaneous abortion. "
11/01/2009 - "Eighteen were spontaneous abortions, 11 of which were macerated, and 1 of these was associated with an intrauterine contraceptive device. "
05/01/2004 - "It is generally agreed that intrauterine devices (IUDs) with visible strings in pregnancy should be removed because of the increased risk of miscarriage, septic complications and premature delivery. "
07/01/2003 - "In this retrospective study, we describe cases of pregnancy initiated despite an intrauterine device (IUD), which occurred in our setting in the last 10 years (from January 1992 to December 2001), aiming to point out the effects of IUD in terms of miscarriage or fetal problems. "