|2.||Hallux Valgus (Bunion)
|3.||Flatfoot (Flat Feet)
|4.||Congenital Abnormalities (Deformity)
|5.||Clubfoot (Talipes Equinovarus)
|1.||National Birth Defects Prevention Study: 60 articles (11/2015 - 10/2002)|
|2.||Czeizel, Andrew E: 55 articles (10/2015 - 03/2002)|
|3.||Lenke, Lawrence G: 38 articles (10/2015 - 01/2002)|
|4.||Bridwell, Keith H: 34 articles (09/2015 - 01/2002)|
|5.||Czeizel, A E: 31 articles (03/2012 - 01/2000)|
|6.||Smith, Justin S: 29 articles (10/2015 - 09/2008)|
|7.||Myerson, Mark S: 27 articles (04/2015 - 10/2002)|
|8.||Bánhidy, Ferenc: 27 articles (07/2014 - 01/2005)|
|9.||Shaffrey, Christopher I: 26 articles (10/2015 - 02/2006)|
|10.||Canfield, Mark A: 24 articles (11/2015 - 09/2002)|
07/01/2001 - "However, there was no spontaneous improvement in the deformity in older patients; most of the NOP patients continued to show a cosmetic deformity and 26.7% had psychological problems. "
09/01/2013 - "Pectus deformities may be repaired with no mortality, low morbidity, very good cosmetic results and improvement in cardiological and respiratory symptoms."
09/01/2013 - "For young adults who wish to correct their pectus deformity, a thoracoscopic Nuss procedure is safe and results in a high rate of patient satisfaction, significant improvement in self-image, and excellent midterm cosmetic results."
12/01/1989 - "By combining early detection and modern management techniques, significant untreated curvature of the spine can be eliminated, and functional and cosmetic deformity can be avoided."
05/01/1983 - "Surgical treatment can produce good results, but equally satisfactory function with minimal residual cosmetic deformity may be achieved by nonsurgical measures."
|2.||Folic Acid (Vitamin M)FDA LinkGeneric
06/15/2005 - "Based upon suggestive evidence that periconceptional folic acid supplementation is effective in preventing a significant proportion of the aforementioned birth defects, genetic variation in the folate biosynthetic pathways may influence the infant's susceptibility to these birth defects. "
11/01/2000 - "Furthermore, it would require changes to the previous recommendations since a multivitamin containing a physiological dose of folic acid (0.5 to 0.8mg) seems to be more effective in reducing the occurrence of the first NTD and other congenital abnormalities than folic acid alone. "
07/01/2013 - "Analysis of the recent literature reposts suggests that metafolin could be an effective and safe alternative to folic acid supplementation and could effectively prevent complications in pregnancy and series birth defects in fetuses and newborns."
01/01/2008 - "The results indicate that the risk of congenital abnormalities in children exposed in utero to CBZ, PB, PHT, and PRI is reduced but not eliminated by folic acid supplementation at 5-12 weeks from LMP. "
06/01/2004 - "Recent data show improved folate status and apparent decreases in risk of neural tube birth defects in the U.S. "
07/01/2007 - "This personal technique of nasal alar suturing during bimaxillary surgery appears to be effective in avoiding unaesthetic deformities of the nasal base as well as providing good facial harmony."
11/01/2006 - "The postoperative results showed a significant statistical improvement in the following tip deformities: underprojected tip (P<.001), poorly defined tip (P<.001), alar retraction (P<.001), alar pinch (P<.001), overrotated tip (P<.001), and tip ptosis (P<.01). "
10/01/2001 - "Good results were obtained in 29 patients where alar-columellar web deformities were either absent or minimal and a satisfactory symmetry of the nostrils was achieved. "
02/01/2012 - "Alar release and medialization would be effective in some of these deformities. "
11/01/2009 - "The postoperative results as judged by the surgeon showed a clear improvement in tip definition (100%) and projection (100%), alar pinching (100%), tip deformities (95.2%), tip deviation (77.8%) alar retraction (87.5%) and tip ptosis (85.7%). "
07/01/2015 - "To derive an objective measure of parasol rib deformity from spine radiographs and to compare efficacy of rib-based (vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR)) versus spine-based growing rods ("GR") instrumentation to improve parasol rib deformity and pulmonary function. "
02/01/2011 - "The aim of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of using a titanium mesh cage compared to iliac crest grafting regarding correction of the deformity, fusion rate and to report the incidence of complications. "
04/01/2010 - "In the last decade, the use of growing rods and vertebral expandable prosthetic titanium rib has improved the armamentarium of the spinal surgeon in dealing with certain difficult congenital spinal deformities. "
07/01/2009 - "Efficacy of intraoperative neurologic monitoring in surgery involving a vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib for early-onset spinal deformity."
09/15/2000 - "This is a study of 66 consecutive adult patients (ages 20-81 years) with sagittal deformities who underwent surgery in which structural titanium mesh cages were implanted into the anterior column during posterior instrumentation and fusion. "
07/01/1997 - "More than half (56%) of the women who had fertility-conserving surgery and who have been in remission at least 2 years have become pregnant since the completion of EMA/CO, with 112 live births, including three infants with congenital abnormalities. "
01/01/2010 - "The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of spinal loop rectangle and sub laminar wires as a modality for spinal deformity correction and its co-relation with patients' satisfaction and clinical outcome. "
01/01/2015 - "The co-primary end points were the mean percent change in penile curvature deformity and the mean improvement in PD bother score (range 0-16) from baseline to week 36. "
04/01/1998 - "56% of women who have been in remission for at least 2 years and had fertility conserving surgery have achieved pregnancy since completing EMA/CO and there have been 112 live births including 3 babies with congenital abnormalities. "
12/01/2011 - "The purpose of this study was to assess, using large, population-based registries, the effect of co-occurring birth defects (CBDs) on the timing and overall rate of hearing screening and diagnosis. "
11/01/2001 - "This study presents a practical classification that permits the plastic surgeon to critically evaluate which is the best option to correct abdominal deformities considering specific areas of myoaponeurotic weakness."
09/01/2001 - "This study presents a practical classification that permits the plastic surgeon to critically evaluate which is the best option to correct abdominal deformities considering specific skin and subcutaneous deformities."
12/01/2012 - "Little 3-dimensional biomechanical investigation of plastic bowing deformity of the ulna has been reported, and the purpose of this study was to conduct such an investigation to elucidate mechanisms of injury and appropriate treatments. "
07/01/2012 - "The study was carried out in the group of 50 patients operated on in the Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery due to congenital nose deformity. "
07/01/1960 - "Surgical-psychiatric study of patients seeking plastic (cosmetic) surgery: ninety-eight consecutive patients with minimal deformity."
|7.||Vitamin DFDA LinkGeneric
01/01/1982 - "Previously recommended treatment programs of high doses of vitamin D have effected some roentgenographic improvement in the rachitic lesions, but no related increase in height or severity of deformities has been associated with significant complications resulting from vitamin D toxicity. "
10/01/1980 - "Treatment from early childhood with oral phosphate and vitamin D improved the rate of growth and controlled the progression of bowleg deformity. "
03/01/2010 - "A diagnosis of HRO should be considered in all patients presenting with short stature, deformities or musculoskeletal pains along with low serum phosphate with normal iPTH and 25--hydroxy vitamin D."
10/01/1988 - "Histomorphometry and vitamin D metabolism of valgus-varus deformity in broiler chickens."
08/01/1984 - "If vitamin D requirements are not met during the physiological growth spurt, permanent pelvic deformity may result. "
|8.||Thalidomide (Thalomid)FDA Link
07/01/2011 - "Thalidomide: the tragedy of birth defects and the effective treatment of disease."
01/01/2013 - "However, the discovery of thalidomide-induced birth defects and many later studies afterwards proved the opposite. "
01/01/2012 - "This study confirms that NO reduced the number of thalidomide mediated limb deformities by 94% and 80% in chick and zebrafish embryos respectively. "
09/01/2005 - "Though several studies have been done on congenital malformations in India since the early 1960s, coinciding with the thalidomide tragedy in the West, no uniform methods are available for the surveillance of birth defects. "
01/01/1977 - "In 1968 a study was made of the spinal changes in 32 children with multiple congenital abnormalities due to thalidomide. "
|9.||Vitamin B 12 (Cyanocobalamin)FDA LinkGeneric
11/01/2012 - "Organ-specific birth defects are seen in patients with some inborn errors of vitamin B(12) metabolism. "
01/01/2010 - "Recent data implicate low vitamin B12 status as a risk factor for birth defects resulting from improper neural tube development. "
09/01/2009 - "We have reviewed the literature on the effect of vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) on development and birth defects. "
09/01/2009 - "Vitamin B(12) and birth defects."
06/01/2008 - "Starting pregnancy with an inadequate vitamin B12 status may increase risk of birth defects such as NTD, and may contribute to preterm delivery, although this needs further evaluation. "
05/01/1995 - "To study the relation of maternal periconceptional vitamin use to the risk of a congenital urinary tract anomaly (CUTA), we conducted a case-control study using the Washington State Birth Defect Registry. "
06/01/2015 - "Racial variability in certain prenatal risk factors, such as prenatal vitamin supplementation and termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly, has altered the racial prevalence of birth defects. "
09/01/2014 - "Making birth defects 'preventable': pre-conceptional vitamin supplements and the politics of risk reduction."
04/01/2012 - "Commentary to 'association between maternal prenatal vitamin use and congenital abnormalities of the genitourinary tract in a developing country'."
04/01/2012 - "Association between maternal prenatal vitamin use and congenital abnormalities of the genitourinary tract in a developing country."
01/01/2005 - "Lamella and complex osteotomies of orbital rim and wall were proved to be save and effective for correction of most deformities of the orbital and periorbital region."
09/01/2003 - "Lamella and complex osteotomies of orbital rim and wall are proved to be safe and effective to correct most deformities of orbital and periorbital region and various kinds of orbital malposition."
01/01/1979 - "High tibial osteotomy is most effective in osteoarthritic knees with varus deformity, when correction is made to a femoro-tibial angle (standing) of 170 degrees (10 degrees valgus)."
05/01/1977 - "Our findings show that in excavatum deformities the best results were obtained by removing all deformed cartilage, mobilizing the sternum, using an anterior osteotomy, and stabilizing the chest with a metal strut (which was removed after one year). "
03/01/2009 - "Mitchell's osteotomy gives very good results but there are still some cases where the original method, as well as its modification, cannot address all aspects of deformity. "
06/01/2009 - "Correction of these deformities and stabilization with ESF and intratarsal arthrodesis can yield an excellent functional outcome, with improved gait and ambulation."
05/01/2015 - "Both groups demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in deformity and a return to more normal radiographic findings after arthrodesis (p < .05). "
08/01/2009 - "The results indicate good long-term correctional effect on valgus deformity after Grice arthrodesis, as the talo-calcaneal and talo-first-metatarsal angles improved significantly. "
11/01/1997 - "Reduction of deformity in metatarsal-talar, calcaneal-talar, and talar-tibial positions was achieved and was significantly greater after subtalar arthrodesis operation than after flexor digitorum longus transfer."
01/01/2005 - "Arthrodesis using an intramedullary nail with fins was effective for the treatment of severe deformity of the hind foot. "
08/01/2005 - "Total knee arthroplasty in ankylosed knees can achieve correction of deformity with a significant gain in range of motion and marked improvement in quality of life."
11/01/1998 - "A painful arthritic knee with severe valgus deformity may be treated successfully with total knee arthroplasty using several techniques: constrained implant with lateral release, nonconstrained implant with lateral release and a thick tibial insert, or nonconstrained implant with lateral release and medial reconstruction. "
07/01/1981 - "MP joint arthroplasties performed in 33 joints gave fair results in 16 joints with fixed deformities and good results in 17 joints with passively correctable deformities. "
06/01/2010 - "This study demonstrates that patients with a preoperative fixed flexion deformity show continued improvement in their fixed flexion up to ten years post arthroplasty and have similar outcomes to those with no preoperative fixed flexion."
05/16/2012 - "The technique described was safe, reproducible, and effective in treating combined varus and flexion deformity of the knee during total knee arthroplasty. "
01/01/2006 - "Eyelid- and conjunctiva-sparing orbital exenteration with temporalis transfer and dermis-fat graft is a useful technique that minimizes the usual deformity and achieves good results. "
01/01/1990 - "Autogenous grafts have been used successfully to treat the superior sulcus deformity, extruding implant, and the contracting socket. "
06/15/2013 - "RhBMP-2 is superior to iliac crest bone graft for long fusions to the sacrum in adult spinal deformity: 4- to 14-year follow-up."
10/01/1997 - "The iliac wedge graft was more effective for reduction of the deformity and initial stabilization. "
06/01/2013 - "Extracorporeal septoplasty, spreader grafts and the crossbar graft are all particularly effective, not only in correcting deformity of the nasal pyramid but also in solving functional respiratory problems. "
04/01/1986 - "The best results are obtained by thorough decompression, adequate correction of deformity, and proper stabilization of the spine. "
01/01/2011 - "Early decompression and instrumented fusion in spinal TB, complicated by neurological deficit in advanced pregnancy, can give good results with respect to neurological recovery, healing of the lesion, and arrest of deformity progression. "
03/01/2007 - "The simplest form of treatment is isolated lateral wall decompression, and if applied to a patient who has minimal subtalar arthrosis and no hindfoot deformity, good results are produced. "
01/01/2003 - "Posterior cervical decompression with this system is technically feasible and should be beneficial for reducing post-operative morbidity and spine deformity. "
07/01/2014 - "The resultant circumferential stabilization combined with a limited segmental decompression resulted in improved neurologic function and satisfactory clinical outcomes, with a low incidence of implant failure and progressive deformity."