|1.||Mitsumori, Kunitoshi: 5 articles (05/2008 - 06/2003)|
|2.||Cechinel-Filho, Valdir: 2 articles (11/2015 - 06/2013)|
|3.||Otuki, Michel Fleith: 2 articles (11/2015 - 06/2013)|
|4.||Horinouchi, Cíntia Delai da Silva: 2 articles (11/2015 - 06/2013)|
|5.||Campos, Patrícia Mazureki: 2 articles (11/2015 - 06/2013)|
|6.||Cho, Jae Youl: 2 articles (05/2014 - 04/2010)|
|7.||Cheng, Sun-Long: 2 articles (09/2008 - 04/2006)|
|8.||Sinchaikul, Supachok: 2 articles (09/2008 - 04/2006)|
|9.||Chen, Shui-Tein: 2 articles (09/2008 - 04/2006)|
|10.||Jin, Meilan: 2 articles (05/2008 - 09/2007)|
04/01/1999 - "In 2 patients, there was complete clearance of melasma, and this was on the side where kojic acid was used. "
04/01/1999 - "More than half of the melasma cleared in 24/40 (60%) patients receiving kojic acid compared to 19/40 (47.5%) patients receiving the gel without kojic acid. "
07/01/2014 - "We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combined system that simultaneously uses monopolar radiofrequency (RF) and transdermal drug delivery of phytocomplex containing 1% kojic acid in the treatment of melasma. "
07/01/2013 - "Eighty patients from a single tertiary care center objectively assessed by calculating the melasma area severity index (MASI) and randomized (simple randomization) into four parallel groups (A, B, C, and D) of 20 each were prescribed once daily local application at night, (participants blinded regarding the difference in identity of interventions), as follows: Group A - kojic acid 1% cream. "
06/01/2012 - "Although in human clinical studies kojic acid has been shown to be effective in the treatment of hyper-pigmentation disorders such as melasma, the reasons for its apparent lack of anti-melanogenic activity in cultured mammalian melanocytes are unclear. "
|2.||Pigmentation Disorders (Ito Syndrome)
11/01/2014 - "Kojic acid and α-lipoic acid combination might prove a good approach as treatment for hyperpigmentation disorders."
03/01/2013 - "At the 4(th) week post treatment evaluation, facial hyperpigmentation responded early to 4% Hydroquinone cream than to 0.75% Kojic Acid cream. "
01/01/2012 - "The cytotoxicity of kojic acid esters in B16F1 melanoma cells was significantly lower than kojic acid at high doses, ranging from 125 and 500 μg/mL. Since kojic acid esters have lower cytotoxic effect than kojic acid, it is suggested that kojic acid esters can be used as alternatives for a safe skin whitening agent and potential depigmenting agents to treat hyperpigmentation."
09/01/2014 - "Synthetic compounds that are used in the clinic to regulate skin hyperpigmentation, such as arbutin, hydroquinone, and kojic acid, are only moderately effective. "
12/01/2004 - "Especially, the compound 1 showed strong inhibition (IC50=1.33 microM) against the enzyme tyrosinase, as compared to the standard tyrosinase inhibitors kojic acid (IC50=16.67 microM) and L-mimosine (IC50=3.68 microM), indicating its potential used for the treatment of hyperpigmentation associated with the high production of melanocytes."
08/01/2012 - "The two hydroxydaidzeins reduced melanin synthesis comparably to treatment with kojic acid, a proven whitening agent, in B16 melanoma cells. "
01/01/2011 - "It also inhibited melanin production by B16 melanoma cell line and normal human melanocytes more efficiently than kojic acid. "
06/01/2006 - "When gamma-TDMG or kojic acid (250 microM) were added to homogenates of B16 melanoma cells, their tyrosinase activity was significantly inhibited by approximately 40% and 75%, respectively. "
02/01/2006 - "In the present study, piperlonguminine from Piper longum was discovered to inhibit melanin production in melanoma B16 cells stimulated with alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or protoporphyrin IX, where the compound exhibited stronger depigmenting efficacy than kojic acid. "
12/01/2006 - "Kojic acid, isopropylcatechol, N-acetyl-4-cysteaminylphenol, and flavonoid extracts are other compounds that have been investigated for their ability to produce hypopigmentation, but their efficacy, safety, or trial design indicates that the interventions would need further study before they could be recommended. "
04/01/2007 - "Combination of these 4 amino acids had the additive effect on hypopigmentation that was as similar as that of kojic acid."
|1.||hydroquinone (Black and White)
|2.||glycolic acid (glycolate)
|3.||Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)