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Down Syndrome (Down's Syndrome) Summary

Description: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe MENTAL RETARDATION. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)

Also Known As: Down's Syndrome; Trisomy 21; Downs Syndrome; Syndrome, Down; Trisomy 21, Meiotic Nondisjunction Show All >>

Networked: 6126 relevant articles (139 outcomes, 697 trials/studies) for this Disease

Key Drugs and Agents for Down Syndrome

Efficacy Chart >>
Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to treatments:
  1. alpha-Fetoproteins (AFP) : 21 outcomes 54 studies in 429 results : IBA
  2. Chorionic Gonadotropin (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) : 15 outcomes 37 studies in 211 results : FDA 13 Generic
  3. Biological Markers (Surrogate Marker) : 13 outcomes 55 studies in 372 results : IBA
  4. Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A) : 11 outcomes 31 studies in 258 results : IBA
  5. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) : 6 outcomes 42 studies in 264 results : IBA
  6. donepezil (Aricept) : 4 outcomes 10 studies in 26 results : FDA 18 Generic
  7. bosentan (Tracleer) : 4 outcomes 4 studies in 10 results : FDA 1
  8. inhibin A : 3 outcomes 9 studies in 90 results : IBA
  9. dichlorobis(azomycin)platinum II : 3 outcomes 9 studies in 52 results : IBA
  10. Hormones : 3 outcomes 3 studies in 34 results : IBA
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Diseases Related to Down Syndrome

  1. Trisomy (Trisomies)
  2. Alzheimer Disease (Alzheimer's Disease)
  3. Dementia (Dementias)
  4. Chromosome Aberrations (Chromosome Abnormalities)
  5. Heart Diseases (Heart Disease)
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Key Therapies for Down Syndrome

Efficacy Chart >>
  1. Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy) : 6 outcomes 6 studies in 69 results
  2. Bone Marrow Transplantation (Transplantation, Bone Marrow) : 4 outcomes in 19 results
  3. Therapeutics : 3 outcomes 2 studies in 9 results
  4. Adenoidectomy : 3 outcomes 1 study in 13 results
  5. Middle Ear Ventilation (Tympanostomy) : 2 outcomes 1 study in 5 results
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